- Created: 07-09-21
Description: The utilization of medical nonwoven fabric has outpaced woven materials in recent years. Even when traced back to their rapid adoption during WWII, nonwovens were proven to be superior products in terms of adaptability, disposability, cost, and effectiveness. Manufacturing technology improved in the following decades until current-day use of nonwovens has placed them in a position to dominate the medical textile industry. What are Nonwovens Fabrics? Nonwovens are defined as sheets or web structures bonded together by the process of entangling fibers or filaments (and sometimes by perforating films) mechanically, chemically, or thermally. The fibers may be oriented randomly throughout the fabric or only following one direction. Multiple layers may be combined to achieve the desired elongation, strength, and other mechanical properties. Porosity is controlled by varying fiber density, diameter, orientation, and the use of additional mechanical processing. Key characteristics of nonwovens that justify their use and popularity: durability strength resilience dimensional stability low elongation specific processing to control porosity Benefits of Nonwovens Driving this Market With very deliberate care being taken to lower the incidence of hospital-acquired infection, nonwoven medical textiles are the clear winner in this category, thanks to their unique qualities. Medical textile technology is subject to intense monitoring since human lives are at stake. The intense scrutiny has resulted in better quality products and the development and implementation of innovative new uses in the medical field. Nonwovens are preferred and poised to dominate the industry because they: are effective barriers against bacteria outperform linens for reducing airborne contaminants can be tailored to changing specifications help mitigate the risks of today's medical environments due to drug-resistant bacteria, worsening viral threats, polluted indoor and outdoor air, and increases in the numbers of blood-borne diseases In 2014, nonwovens dominated the global medical textiles market. They accounted for over 55% of global volume, and are projected to gain market share through 2024 consistently. What is SMS Material? “SMS” stands for spunbond meltblown spunbond. SMS non woven fabric is a type of nonwoven fabric that combines spunbond and meltblown fabrics.When SMS material is created, it has great water repelling capabilities. This is why manufacturers choose to use SMS material in things like face masks, parts of baby diapers, sanitary napkins, and janitorial coveralls. It’s also used for caps, gowns, beddings, and other hospital accessories. Why Combine Spunbond with Meltblown? Spunbond polypropylene is a material that has great durability and strength, no matter if it’s wet or dry. It’s very resistant to fraying and is difficult to unravel, plus it barely absorbs any moisture if it becomes wet. Meltblown, on the other hand, is softer and more pliable than spun bond polypropylene. Their main advantage is their web strength, which is why they’re usually combined with other nonwoven fibers. While spun bond polypropylene has its advantages, it can feel stiff and uncomfortable when it’s put in everyday applications such as coveralls.Since meltblown has a webbed structure and is softer, when you combine these two nonwoven fibers, it provides the wearer with water resistance while still retaining comfort. It’s also breathable, so even if you’re covered from head to toe (as with coveralls), your comfort won’t be compromised. Applications for SMS Material Because of how well SMS material repels water, it’s used in a number of industries where people need to block off fluids or other wet substances. Some areas that utilize SMS material’s benefits used are: Protective apparel Cleanroom coveralls Filtration Insulation Medical healthcare Sanitary products Why The Future Is Nonwoven Wherever you are sitting or standing right now, there’s bound to be at least one nonwoven fabric in your midst. Teabag or coffee filter, maybe? An air conditioning filter. Lens tissues, bleach wipes, diapers. Surely a face mask or seven. Though the COVID-19 pandemic certainly pushed awareness of nonwoven fabrics to the forefront, we’ve had our eye on this growing market segment for years. Why? Because pressure-sensitive adhesive tape is often used to make or convert these textiles into usable everyday items. Here’s our take on how non-wovens will continue to evolve and play a distinct role in the convenience economy. What Is Non-Woven? Nonwoven fabrics are the simplest and oldest textile fabrics. Neither woven nor knitted, as the name suggests, non-woven fabrics are broadly defined as sheet or web structures bonded together by entangling fiber or filaments (and by perforating films) mechanically, thermally or chemically. They are flat or tufted porous sheets that are made directly from separate fibers, molten plastic, or plastic film. They are not made by weaving or knitting and do not require converting the fibers to yarn. Typically, a certain percentage of recycled fabrics and oil-based materials are used in non-woven fabrics. The percentage of recycled fabrics varies based upon the strength of the material needed for the specific use. In addition, some nonwoven fabrics can be recycled after use, given the proper treatment and facilities. For this reason, some consider non-woven a more ecological fabric for certain applications, especially in fields and industries where disposable or single-use products are important, such as hospitals, schools, nursing homes, and luxury accommodations. How are Nonwoven Fabrics Made? Non-woven fabrics are made in two main methods: they are either felted or they are bonded. Felted non-woven fabric is produced by layering thin sheets, then applying heat, moisture, and pressure to compress the fibers into a thick matted cloth that will not ravel or fray. There are there main methods of manufacturing bonded non-woven fabrics: Dry Laid, Wet Laid & Direct Spun. In Dry Laid Non-woven Fabric manufacturing, a web of fibers is laid in a drum and hot air is injected to bond the fibers together. In Wet-Laid, a web of fibers is mixed with a softening solvent that releases a glue-like substance that bonds the fibers together, and then the web is laid out to dry. In Direct Spun, the fibers are spun on to a conveyer belt, and glues are sprayed on to the fibers, which are then pressed to bond. (In case of thermoplastic fibers, glue is not required.) How are Non-Woven Fabrics Being Used? Nonwoven fabrics penetrate a wide range of markets including medical, apparel, automotive, filtration, construction, geotextiles, and protective. Day by day the use of non-woven fabric is increasing and without them, our present life would be incomprehensible. Indeed, nonwovens play an integral role in the convenience economy. Basically there are two types of nonwoven fabric: durable and disposal. Around 60% of nonwoven fabric is durable and the other 40% is disposal. These specialty fabrics are engineered to provide specific functions such as absorbency, sterility, liquid repellency, resilience, stretch, softness, strength, flame retardancy, cushioning, thermal insulation, acoustic insulation, and filtration. These properties are often combined to create fabrics suited for specific jobs while achieving a good balance between product use-life and cost. There are many kinds of it, such as non-woven fabrics for clothing, non-woven fabrics for packaging, and so on. Non-woven fabric, is made of oriented or random fibers. It is a new generation of environmentally friendly materials. It is moisture-proof, breathable, flexible, light, non-combustible, easy to decompose, non-toxic and non-irritating, rich in color, and price. Low cost, recyclable, and so on. For example, polypropylene (pp material) pellets are used as raw materials, which are produced by high-temperature melting, spinning, paving, and hot-rolling and continuous one-step process. It is called cloth because it has the appearance and some properties of the cloth. Therefore, in the non-woven fabric, S, SS,SSS, SMS mean the following: S: spunbonded non-woven fabric = hot-rolled single-layer web; SS: spunbonded nonwoven fabric + spunbonded nonwoven fabric = hot rolled from two layers of web; SSS: spunbonded nonwoven fabric + spunbonded nonwoven fabric + spunbonded nonwoven fabric= hot rolled from three layers of web; SMS: spunbond non-woven fabric + meltblown non-woven fabric + spunbond non-woven fabric = three-layer fiber mesh hot rolled S and SS non woven fabric are mainly used for furniture, agriculture, hygenic products, and packaging products. And SMS nonwoven fabric is mainly for medical products, like surgical gowns. We are now exporting these non-woven fabrics to different countries in the world.
Publish Date: 24-09-21
Description: All products and services featured are independently chosen by editors. However, WWD may receive a commission on orders placed through its retail links, and the retailer may receive certain auditable data for accounting purposes. An artist is only as good as their tools, and we’re not just talking about painters. The same rule applies in the realm of cosmetics: Your makeup can only be as good as your applicators, which is why you should upgrade your collection to include the best makeup brush sets — to ensure that your every beauty need is met. Expertly curated makeup brush sets come stocked with high-quality options that cater to the face, cheeks, eyes, brows, and more, but if you’ve yet to master the art of contouring, defining, shading, highlighting, no worries; you don’t have to be a professional to operate this fine equipment. According to celebrity makeup artist and brow expert, Danielle Kimiko Vincent, founder of KIMIKO, everyone from beginner makeup moguls to celebrity artists can benefit from investing in a complete set. “I love a good brush set because it can encourage you to start experimenting with new techniques that you might not have otherwise considered,” Vincent tells WWD over email. “For example, an angled eyeshadow brush can be used in many more ways than a standard flat brush. You might learn to create a color wash with the wide section of the brush, and then use the narrow side to create an accent with a darker color.” It also helps that there’s “usually a price break,” when you opt to purchase an entire set versus individual brushes, Vincent adds. “Even if one of the brushes doesn’t become a favorite, you’ll likely make use of most of them, so the value is there.” How To Shop for the Best Makeup Brush Sets While makeup brush sets are an excellent investment, like anything else, not all sets are created equally. Ergo, when shopping for the best Makeup Brush Set, there are some key details to consider. Synthetic vs. Natural Hair In an exclusive interview with WWD, global makeup artist for Jane Iredale, Nechelle Turner explains that bristles on silicone mask brush are either natural (sourced from animals like squirrels, goats, and ponies) or synthetically made from nylon, polyester, or other synthetic fibers. Natural hair brushes, Turner says, have cuticles, making them porous, therefore, they attract and keep the product in the brush, which ultimately results in a more sheer application. “Their porous nature can also make them a breeding ground for bacteria,” Turner says, adding that natural hair brushes also tend to be a higher price point and their longevity is questionable. Synthetic brushes feel more like natural hair brushes and are nonporous, therefore they “pick up and distribute more product on the skin for a more defined and more precise application,” Turner tells WWD. That being said, because synthetic brushes pick up and distribute more product, Turner advises using a lighter hand. It’s also worth noting that synthetic brushes that are stiff or have a shiny coating can result in a streaky makeup application, so you want to look for fluffy, softer bristles. “In either case look for shedding,” Turner warns. “Shedding or lack of shedding bristles is a good indication of the quality of the fibers in both cases.” Brush Count Be realistic about how many brushes you need and how many brushes you’ll actually use. “If you’re advanced and like to try new techniques and looks, then a larger set with a wide range of variety will suit you best,” Vincent tells WWD. “If you’re relatively simple with your makeup, then an edited set will be great for you.” Vincent tells WWD that as far as length goes, for a personal makeup bag, medium or shorter handles work well overall, but for a professional makeup artist, longer handles are ideal for powder and blush application. “This allows me to view my client from slightly further back, giving me a fuller picture of what I’m creating,” she says. As for handle material, there are two options: wooden or plastic. “This may not be important for everyone,” Vincent prefaces, “but specifically for natural brushes, I prefer a beautiful wooden handle and brush hairs that have been hand cut and tied. This usually means high attention to detail has been taken with the taper and placement of the brush hairs, which I find translates to a more refined lay-down of powdered products.” With sets geared towards beginners, pros, and every mastery level in between, the best makeup brush sets accommodate a wide range of beauty abilities with their basic, essential, and expert brush pairings. Below, find the best makeup brush sets that will satisfy every beauty buff’s skillset and budget. 1. BS-Mall Premium 14-Piece Brush Set The BS-Mall Premium 14-piece brush set is one of the best makeup brush sets on amazon. With over 79,000 reviews (the majority of which are 5-star) to date, customers rave BS-Mall synthetic hair brushes are “soft,” “high quality,” and “comparable to high end brushes.” The 14-pc collection includes nine precise beard brush for shaving, as well as five chunky kabuki brushes for blush, bronzer, foundation, and other face product application. A travel case is also included with every purchase for easy storage. One of the best affordable makeup brush sets on the market, EcoTools brushes are also (as its name would suggest) eco-friendly. Each tool is constructed from 100% recycled, vegan-friendly, cruelty-free materials and the collection comes packaged in tree-free paper made from cotton and bamboo fibers. The Day Beautifully Brush Set consists of the brands core collection of five brushes (including an angled foundation brush, blurring brush, defining crease brush, angled liner brush, and full blush brush), as well as three how-to beauty look cards to help simplify your routine. Vincent tells WWD her brand’s essential brush collection is particularly excellent for “stepping up your brush game while keeping your makeup bag curated.” Each brush included in the set is hand cut, constructed with cruelty-free materials, and is designed to be multifunctional, ensuring you can create more looks with limited tools: “Three of the four brushes are dual-ended (with caps), so you’re actually getting seven brushes; a do-it-all brush for face, two essentials for eyes, a synthetic concealer and lip brush, and a brow and lash brush.” Bridal and celebrity makeup artist, Cara Lovello tells WWD this set from EIGSHOW is one of the best makeup brush sets for beginners available on Amazon. “The brushes are affordable and good quality,” Lovello says, adding, “they don’t shed or fall apart.” The brand’s 15-piece Jade Series kit includes all the tools needed to create precise, flawless looks, from a foundation brush to various eye makeup tools. The brushes are made with vegan-friendly bristles sourced from corn silk fibers and birch wood handles, and come packaged (and separated) in a cosmetic bag made from recycled clothing and linen fibers. The Tarte Cosmetics Goal Getters Contour Brush Set features five complexion brushes the brand guarantees will “sculpt, strobe, and perfect” your complexion. Inside, you’ll find the Bronzer Brush, Contour Brush, Foundation Brush, Concealer Brush and the Highlighter Brush, all decked out in rose gold sequins and topped with baby pink bristles. Reviewers give the set just shy of a 5-star rating, and love the set for its quality, as well as its overall aesthetic. A number-one bestseller on Amazon, the Bestope Makeup Brush Set is stocked with 16 brushes that cater to the face, lips and eyes. Available in five colors and featuring soft and dense synthetic fiber-made brushes, this versatile set ensures that you have everything you need to contour, highlight, blend and shade. Perfect for beginners, the Real Techniques Everyday Essentials makeup brush set covers all of the basics with its pro-curated pairings. Featuring brushes for the face, cheeks and eyes, the set includes the brand’s RT 400 Blush, RT 300 Deluxe Crease, RT 402 Setting and RT 200 Expert Face brushes, plus the Miracle Complexion Sponge. Created with the eyes in mind, the Sigma Beauty Basic Eye Brush Set features seven brushes designed for eyeliner, eyeshadow and brows. Made with the brand’s exclusive synthetic antimicrobial fibers, securing them as one of the best vegan makeup brush sets on the market, these quality brushes are engineered to better hold, apply and blend products. The set includes the E40 Tapered Blending Brush, the E55 Eye Shading Brush, the E60 Large Shader Brush, the E70 Medium Angled Shading Brush, the E30 Pencil Brush, the E65 Small Angle Brush and the E05 Liner Brush. Renowned for their exceptional blending, innovative Cosmefibre technology and ergonomic construction, the Artis Elite Makeup Brush Set is easily one of the best professional makeup brush sets available. It features the brand’s best-selling brushes for seamless, expert-level application. Inside, you’ll find the Oval 10, Oval 8, Oval 6, Oval 4, Oval 3, Linear 6, Linear 3, Linear 1, Circle 1 and Circle 1R brushes. Jenny Patinkin’s Luxury Six-Piece Vegan Cosmetic Brush Set includes a curated collection of multipurpose, multiuse makeup brushes that can be used with cream, liquid gel and powder products. According to the brand, the brushes features synthetic fibers that are finer than natural hair alternatives and packed with 2.5 times more bristles than conventional brushes for a soft feel and seamless application. The set also comes with a stylish vegan croc-embossed case for travel. A travel-sized makeup brush collection that is available in five colorways, the Spectrum Collections Jet Setter set ensures that you’ve got all of your makeup tools in one convenient place. The eight-piece kit includes the B01 Buffing Foundation Brush, the C03 Tulip Power Brush, the A05 Angled Blush Brush, the B08 Magic Wand Powder Brush, the B06 Tapered Blender Brush, the B04 Angled Shader Brush, the A16 Precision Crease Brush and A24 Double Ended Brow Styler Brush. If you’re new to the makeup scene or you’re not a regular makeup user, you need to understand the importance of quality makeup brushes. A lot of makeup newbies and amateurs do not realize the importance of quality tools and brushes, and this should not be so. Most of them do not even know which tools and brushes to buy, and this article will help them through a number of issues, including identifying the right tools to buy, and the importance of these tools. Many people need makeup for a number of reasons, and no matter your reason for using makeup, you need the right tools, and you need tools of the best quality. When starting out, you need original and high-quality brushes, including (the basics) a liquid foundation brush, a powder brush, a concealer brush, a number of eyeshadow brushes, false eyelashes some lip brushes, eyeshadow brushes, and a buffing brush. Why are quality brushes actually important? Why are they better than cheap brushes? A lot of people ask these questions, and there are many reasons why quality brushes are important. These reasons include: Quality brushes are better for your skin: Your skin deserves the best, and quality brushes will give your skin the very best. Quality brushes should feel soft and gentle against your skin. If a brush feels rough and scratchy, then it is of low quality and should not be used on your skin. If it’s also a brush with bristles that fall out all the time, it is not of good quality. When you use these low-quality brushes, it will lead to skin irritation and visibly faster aging. Buying quality brushes saves you money: While it might seem expensive at first, making the decision to buy quality brushes will actually save you money in the long run. If you decide to buy cheap brushes of low quality, you will have to keep replacing them, and this will cost you a lot more money than if you had just gotten the slightly more expensive ones at first. Also, quality brushes have the ability to last for years. Your makeup turns out better when you use quality brushes: Quality brushes improve the final look of your makeup. They make application and blending easier, and you end up having a smoother, well-done, and more attractive look. If, for instance, you use bad eyeshadow brushes, your eyeshadow will come out looking tacky and totally unattractive. Once you make use of quality brushes, however, your eyeshadow will look as great as possible. Even though it is expensive, you have to invest in great brushes. You get to save money, quality brushes have longevity, quality brushes are good for our skin, and they’re better for your makeup in general. For these reasons, you need to make the decision to get quality brushes today.
Publish Date: 23-09-21
Description: Deciding which type of fabric to make an item with is an important decision, as fabrics can have countless qualities. From natural to synthetic fibers and from knit to woven, here’s a look at different fabric types and how to identify them. Canvas. Canvas is a plain-weave fabric typically made out of heavy cotton yarn and, to a lesser extent, linen yarn. Canvas fabric is known for being durable, sturdy, and heavy duty. By blending cotton with synthetic fibers, canvas can become water resistant or even waterproof, making it a great outdoor fabric. Cashmere. Cashmere is a type of wool fabric that is made from cashmere goats and pashmina goats. Cashmere is a natural fiber known for its extremely soft feel and great insulation. The fibers are very fine and delicate, feeling almost like a silk oxford fabric to the touch. Cashmere is significantly warmer and lighter than sheep’s wool. Often cashmere is made into a wool blend and mixed with other types of wool, like merino, to give it added weight, since cashmere fibers are very fine and thin. Chenille. Chenille is the name for both the type of yarn and the recycled fabric that makes the soft material. The threads are purposefully piled when creating the yarn, which resembles the fuzzy exterior of the caterpillar. Chenille is also a woven fabric that can be made from a variety of different fibers, including cotton, silk, wool, and rayon. Chiffon. Chiffon a lightweight, plain-woven fabric with a slight shine. Chiffon has small puckers that make the fabric a little rough to the touch. These puckers are created through the use of s-twist and z-twist crepe yarns, which are twisted counter-clockwise and clockwise respectively. Crepe yarns are also twisted much tighter than standard yarns. The yarns are then woven in a plain weave, which means a single weft thread alternates over and under a single warp thread. The sheer fabric can be woven from a variety of textile types, both synthetic and natural, like silk, nylon, rayon, or polyester. Cotton. Cotton is a staple fiber, which means it is composed of different, varying lengths of fibers. Cotton is made from the natural fibers of cotton plants. Cotton is primarily composed of cellulose, an insoluble organic compound crucial to plant structure, and is a soft and fluffy material. The term cotton refers to the part of the cotton plant that grows in the boil, the encasing for the fluffy cotton fibers. Cotton is spun into yarn that is then woven to create a soft, durable fabric used for everyday garments, like t-shirts, and home items, such as bed sheets. Cotton prints and cotton solids are both available designs. Crêpe. Crêpe is a silk, wool, or synthetic fabric with a distinctive wrinkled and bumpy appearance. Crêpe is usually a light-to- medium-weight fabric. Crêpe fabric can be used to make clothes, like dresses, suits, blouses, pants, and more. Crêpe is also popular in home decor for items like curtains, window treatments, and pillows. Damask. Damask is a reversible, jacquard-patterned fabric, meaning that the pattern is woven into the polyester taffeta fabric, instead of printed on it. The fabric’s design is created through the weave, which is a combination of two different weaving techniques—the design is woven using a satin weave, while the background is achieved through a plain, twill, or sateen weave. Damask patterns can be either multi-colored or single colored. Damasks can be made from a variety of different textiles, including silk, linen, cotton, wool, or synthetic fibers, like rayon. Learn more about damask fabric here. Georgette. Georgette is a type of crêpe fabric that is typically made from pure silk but can also be made from synthetic fibers like rayon, viscose, and polyester. Crêpe georgette is woven using tightly twisted yarns, which create a slight crinkle effect on the surface Georgette is sheer and lightweight and has a dull, matte finish.. Silk georgette is very similar to silk chiffon, which is also a type of crêpe fabric, but georgette is not as sheer as chiffon because of the tighter weave. Georgette fabrics are sometimes sold in solid colors but often georgette is printed and boasts colorful, floral prints. Gingham. Gingham is a cotton fabric, or sometimes a cotton blend fabric, made with dyed yarn woven using a plain weave to form a checked pattern. Gingham is usually a two-color pattern, and popular combinations are red and white gingham or blue and white gingham. The checked pattern can come in a variety of sizes. Gingham pattern is reversible and appears the same on both sides. Gingham is a popular fabric due to its low cost and ease of production. Gingham is used frequently for button-down shirts, dresses, and tablecloths. Jersey. Jersey is a soft stretchy, knit fabric that was originally made from wool. Today, jersey is also made from cotton, cotton blends, and synthetic fibers. The right side of jersey knit fabric is smooth with a slight single rib knit, while the backside of jersey is piled with loops. The fabric is usually light-to-medium weight and is used for a variety of clothing and household items, like sweatshirts or bed sheets. Lace. Lace is a delicate fabric made from yarn or thread, characterised by open-weave designs and patterns created through a variety of different methods. Lace fabric was originally made from silk and linen, but today cotton thread and synthetic fibers are both used. Lace is a decorative fabric used to accent and embellish clothing and home decor items. Lace is traditionally considered a luxury textile, as it takes a lot of time and expertise to make. Leather. Leather is any fabric that is made from animal hides or skins, and different leathers result from different types of animals and different treatment techniques. While cowhide is the most popular animal skin used for leather, comprising about 65 percent of all leather produced, almost any animal can be made into leather, from crocodiles to pigs to stingrays. Leather is a durable, wrinkle-resistant fabric, and it can take on many different looks and feels based on the type of animal, grade, and treatment. Linen. Linen is an extremely strong, lightweight fabric made from the flax plant. Linen is a common material used for towels, tablecloths, napkins, and bedsheets, and the term “linens,” i.e. bed linens, still refers to these household items, though they are not always made out of linen fabric. The material is also used for the inner layer of jackets, hence the name “lining.” It’s an incredibly absorbent and breathable fabric, which makes it ideal for summer clothing, as the lightweight qualities allow air to pass through and moderate the body temperature. Merino Wool. Merino wool is a type of wool gathered from the coats of Merino sheep. T While traditional wool is notorious for being itchy, merino wool is one of the softest forms of wool and doesn’t aggravate the skin. This is because of the small diameter of the fine merino fibers, which makes it more flexible and pliable and therefore less itchy. Merino wool is considered a luxurious fiber and is used frequently for socks and outdoor clothing. Merino wool is known for being odor-resistant, moisture-wicking, and breathable. Modal. Modal fabric is a semi-synthetic fabric made from beech tree pulp that is used primarily for clothing, such as underwear and pajamas, and household items, like bed sheets and towels. Modal is a form of rayon, another plant-based textile, though it is slightly more durable and flexible than rayon. Modal is often blended with other fibers like cotton and spandex for added strength. Modal is considered a luxurious textile thanks to both its soft feel and high cost, as it is more expensive than either cotton or viscose. Learn more about modal fabric in our complete guide here. Muslin. Muslin is a loosely-woven cotton fabric. It’s made using the plain weave technique, which means that a single weft yarn alternates over and under a single warp yarn. Muslin is known as the material used in fashion prototypes to test patterns before cutting and stitching the final product. Muslin is ideal for testing patterns, as its lightweight and gauzy, therefore it can mimic drape and fit well and is simple to sew with. Organza. Organza is a lightweight, sheer, plain-woven fabric that was originally made from silk. The material can also be made from synthetic fibers, primarily polyester and nylon. Synthetic fabrics are slightly more durable, but the fabric is very delicate and prone to frays and tears. Organza is also characterized by very small holes throughout the home textile fabric, which are the spaces between the warp and weft thread in the plain-weave pattern. The quality of organza is defined as the number of holes per inch—more holes indicate better quality organza. Organza is extremely popular for wedding gowns and evening wear, as it is shimmery and translucent quality which creates decadent silhouettes. Polyester. Polyester is a man-made synthetic fiber created from petrochemicals, like coal and petroleum. Polyester fabric is characterized by its durable nature; however it is not breathable and doesn’t absorb liquids, like sweat, well. Polyester blends are also very popular as the durable fiber can add strength to another fabric, while the other fabric makes polyester more breathable. Satin. Satin is one of the three major textile weaves, along plain weave and twill. The satin weave creates an elastic, shiny, soft fabric with a beautiful drape. Satin fabric is characterized by a soft, lustrous surface on one side, with a duller surface on the other side. This is a result of the satin weaving technique, and there are many variations on what defines a satin weave. Silk. Silk is a natural fiber produced by the silk worm, an insect, as a material for their nests and cocoons. Silk is known for its shine and softness as a material. It is an incredibly durable and strong material with a beautiful drape and sheen. Silk is used for formal attire, accessories, bedding, upholstery, and more. Spandex. Also known as Lycra or elastane, Spandex is a synthetic fiber characterized by its extreme elasticity. Spandex is blended with several types of fibers to add stretch and is used for everything from jeans to athleisure to hosiery. Suede. Suede is a type of leather made from the underside of the animal skin, giving it a soft surface. Suede is usually made from lambskin, but it is also made from other types of animals, including goats, pigs, calves, and deer. Suede is softer thinner, and not as strong as full-grain, traditional leather. However, suede is very durable, and due to its thin nature, it’s pliable and can be molded and crafted easily. Suede is used for footwear, jackets, and accessories, like belts and bags. Taffeta. Taffeta is a crisp, plain-woven spandex fabric made most often from silk, but it can also be woven with polyester, nylon, acetate, or other synthetic fibers. Taffeta fabric typically has a lustrous, shiny appearance. Taffeta can vary in weight from light to medium and in levels of sheerness, depending on the type of fiber used and the tightness of the weave. Taffeta is a popular lining fabric, as the material is decorative and soft, and it is also used for evening wear and home decor. Toile. Toile de Jouy, or simply toile, was a specific type of linen printed with romantic, pastoral patterns in a single color—usually black, blue, or red—on an unbleached fabric. Although the word toile means fabric in French, the word toile has evolved to also refer to the original design aesthetic of the fabric, which gained popularity in France in the 1700s. Toile designs are popular for non-fabric items like wallpaper and fine china. Toile fabric is used for clothing, upholstery, window treatments, and bedding. Tweed. Tweed is a rough woven fabric usually made from wool. The fibers can be woven using a plain weave or twill weaves. It is an extremely warm, hard-wearing fabric that is thick and stiff. Wool tweed is often woven using different colored threads to achieve dynamic patterns and colors, frequently with small squares and vertical lines. Tweed is very popular for suiting and jackets, which were originally made out of the material for hunting activities. Twill. Twill is one of the three major types of textile weaves, along with satin and plain weaves. The distinguishing characteristic of the twill weave is a diagonal rib pattern. Twill weaves have a distinct, often darker colored front side (called the wale) with a lighter back. Twill has high thread count, which means that the fabric is opaque, thick, and durable. Twill fabrics are rarely printed on, though multiple colored yarns can be used to achieve designs like tweed and houndstooth. The fabric is durable with a beautiful drape, and it is used for denim, chinos, upholstery, and bed linens. Velvet. Velvet is a soft, luxurious fabric that is characterized by a dense pile of evenly cut fibers that have a smooth nap. Velvet has a beautiful drape and a unique soft and shiny appearance due to the characteristics of the short pile fibers. Velvet fabric is popular for evening wear and dresses for special occasions, as the polyester oxford fabric was initially made from silk. Cotton, linen, wool, mohair, and synthetic fibers can also be used to make velvet, making velvet less expensive and incorporated into daily-wear clothes. Velvet is also a fixture of home decor, where it’s used as upholstery fabric, curtains, pillows, and more. Viscose. Viscose is a semi-synthetic type of rayon fabric made from wood pulp that is used as a silk substitute, as it has a similar drape and smooth feel to the luxury material. It is a silk-like fabric and is appealing because it is much cheaper to produce. Viscose is a versatile fabric used for clothing items such as blouses, dresses, and jackets, and around the home in carpets and upholstery.
Publish Date: 23-09-21
Description: DIY projects allow you to achieve the result that you desire. Utilizing your skills and artistic talents is related to this matter, and it’s also a way to save some bucks. With regards to this, many boaters can manage how to build a boat bench seat by themselves. You may have wood for building boat seats. Some upgrades can be done by adding cushion and vinyl. Once you choose a design, you can start collecting materials. If you’re groping for design ideas, this article will show you DIY boat bench seats that will surely please you. You can follow them to refurbish or renovate a boat. Various boat styles showcase different angles and lines. Wide and deep hulls are the main characteristics of workboats, while sailboats are thin and long. Nonetheless, a wooden banquette would be fantastic on both of these vessels. Here are the steps: Step 1. Take off Metal and Trim A banquette is a bench along the wall. Therefore, you have to consider the needed space and shape for it. The center section of the boat is where you need to lay down this project. To get started, you have to remove metal or trim but you must keep the pieces for reconnection later on. You may also need to take off logos and insignias that are still useful. Step 2. Cutting the Chosen Area Use chalk to draw a line on your chosen area then you can run the chainsaw over it. Cutting the area should be even and consistent. You may need to tidy up the cutting with a circular saw. You have to be attentive while doing it as there may be some screws. These tiny pieces of hardware may be hiding underwood plugs. Step 3. Cleaning Get rid of the debris created by cutting since it can block from cutting the bottom part. Step 4. The Bench Base Use two pieces of 2×4 wood and place them 16 inches above the pontoon boat furniture with the support from screws for wood. This step is not only for building the base but hull reinforcement as well. Get ?-inch plywood to be added over the 2×4 woods with screws. This will strengthen the structural integrity that may have temporarily gone due to the cuttings that were made. Step 5. Seat Back You may recycle some wood that just lay around or V-groove soffit panels. Get measurement from the seat to the boat anchor for the preparation of the seatback. To ensure that you’re going to create comfortable seats, add horizontal wood blocks that tilt at a slight angle. Install the seatback with 15-gauge finish nails. Step 6. Seat Attachment You may choose any suitable wood for the seat. Mahogany and tropical hardwoods like ipe are the best examples. Pre-drilled screw holes should be done before assembling the parts. Make planks for the bench size that you like and fasten them with stainless wood screws. Step 7. Painting the Banquette If you use recycled wood with some paint on it, you need to sand it before applying a new coat. Step 8. The Last Touch for Refinement You have to add a routed edge over the wooden seat. Then, you can put back the metal and insignia that you removed when starting this project. The finishing touches will be covering the back panels with new paint, applying oil on the wood to have an attractive sheen, and sealing the original parts with polyurethane. When thinking of comfortable bench seats for boats, cushions and vinyl may be the first things that come into your mind. You can skip buying ones for your aluminum boat and instead, make them yourself for customization. So, here’s a guide on how to make a boat rear bench seat if you don’t mind sewing some seat cover. Making a rectangular box frame is the very first step. Make three sides for the lower portion, and they will touch the transom and the floor. Its top will be able to flip and access the engine. Make some plywood strips based on the measurement of the bench seat. You may have a shop cut it for you. Some 1”x1.5” pressure treated lumber, waterproof wood glue, and 1” staples are the things that you need to put the pieces together. After forming the box out of the plywood strips, get rid of splinters by sanding. This process can also break the edges to prevent damaging the vinyl. After sanding, you can apply two coatings of paint. Once the glue has dried, place it on the designated area in your boat. It’s sturdy and it won’t give you problems. Step 2. Setting the Vinyl Down You don’t have to put vinyl at the bottom of the box. An extra piece is needed to be wrapped under the seat. Just apply more effort in working for a nice appearance and allow a vinyl skirt to hang. Make sure to leave a margin of about half an inch for sewing the edges. This is enough to match the cording’s size. Use the double-sided tape to hold the cording and make it curved without twisting or binding. If you know how to use the sewing machine, you’ll be fine. But if not, you can ask someone to do it for you. When vinyl is sewn properly, you can install the bench. Step 3. Cutting the Foam Measure the amount of foam that you need, then mark it. Cutting can be done with an electric knife. Give ?” extra to ensure that the vinyl cushion is stuffed nicely. When you have the right piece of foam, glue it on the top of the box. Batting should be added on the sides for some cushioning with the roughly estimated size. It gives the seat a fuller look. Use a Loctite adhesive to glue it and trimming is needed once it sits in the right place. Step 4. Adding the Vinyl by Stapling Stapling creates a serious grip and adequate strength to hold the vinyl in place. It’s best to use stainless staples. You can begin on the opposing side and work your way to finish tucking the whole piece of vinyl. Just keep pulling, stapling, and tucking to obtain a neat result. At this point, you have finished a bench seat or a motor box for your aluminum boat. As long as you have time, resources, and willingness to work, there’s no reason that you won’t try following the steps on how to build a boat bench seat. You can choose the color, design, size, and materials that you like from these two guides. Some boaters want to customize the looks of their boats to represent their personalities. No one is stopping you from doing so! It can be a technique to give life to an old boat. Also, you can always make a bench seat in a set-up that brings comfort. Did you find this article helpful? If yes, share with anyone who would need this. It’s the time of the year again when being out on the water is the best place to be. In the heat of the summer sun, there’s really nothing like sitting on a pontoon boat to just drift on a calm lake or spend an entire afternoon fishing. Pontoon boats get a lot of attention during the summer months, and it’s only right to take preventative measures in order to keep the health of your boat in check. One of the easiest ways you can do this is by protecting the pontoon’s seats using seat covers. If you’re thinking about buying pontoon folding boat seat covers, here is a quick guide on what you should look for. Material Pontoon seat covers are made out of many different kinds of materials. The lowest end in the spectrum would be a simple plastic tarp. Although plastic tarps will do the job of covering your seats, they aren’t particularly durable. Plastic tarps are great alternative for quick-fix solutions, but they are not permanent options. The next step up to plastic would be canvas tarps. Canvas tarps have long been used as a general cover-up material in boating. They are more durable than plastic in many ways. However, they are also more susceptible to mildew and mold. Canvas tarps today are most often referred to as marine vinyl. It’s still a good alternative if you prefer to use it, but canvas is also easy to stain. Either way, your canvas will definitely protect your pontoon boat seats, but they won’t last as long untreated. If you want your marine vinyl to last longer and protect your flip up boat seat better, you can treat them a waterproof and/or UV spray. The best materials for pontoon seat covers are vinyl blends or polyester. These materials are highly durable and easy to take care of. They are also more resistant to the elements; therefore, they can protect your seats better. Most vinyl blends also offer some breathability factors, so mold and mildew won’t have much room to grow in—even in the most humid conditions. Size You might automatically think that larger is better when it comes to pontoon boat covers, but that’s not necessarily true. Although a larger size will allow you to cover more area, it’s important to measure fit more than anything. Since pontoon boats are exposed to the elements continually, a fitted seat cover will do a better job in protection. Any excess room caused by an unfitted cover will just be excess room for more water or air to enter and damage your pontoon seats. This is why it’s important to measure your pontoon seats before you go out looking for seat covers. This article discusses how you can measure your seat covers properly. Once you have the dimensions written down, you can then continue shopping for pontoon seat covers. Make sure you check your dimensions against the size of the covers before you purchase. It also helps to read reviews regarding the size of the cover from those that have purchased the same product before. You can also get information from the manufacturer of both the seat cover and your low back folding boat seat. Other things to look for Apart from material and size to consider, you might want to also think about a few other things before you buy a pontoon seat cover. First, you might want to think about ease of use and storage. When you’re not using your pontoon seat covers, where are they going to go? Can they easily be folded up and stowed away someplace on your pontoon boat? There are also seat covers that might utilize the use of zippers or elastic. Some people prefer seat covers that will just slip over your pontoon seats. But there are others that are so fitted; you’d have to zip them up in place. There are seat covers that come with enclosures and others that don’t. It might not matter to some people, but style and color matter to others. You might find that a lot of pontoon seat covers come in a white color, neutral, or blue color. Whites and neutral colors reflect the sunlight better than darker colors.
Publish Date: 22-09-21
Description: A temperature sensor has been developed using an embedded system and a sensor head made of polymer-derived SiAlCN ceramics (PDCs). PDC is a promising material for measuring high temperature and the embedded system features low-power consumption, compact size, and wireless temperature monitor. The developed temperature sensor has been experimentally tested to demonstrate the possibility of using such sensors for real world applications. 1. Introduction Accurate temperature measurements are crucial for many applications, such as chemical processing, power generation, and engine monitoring. As a result, development of temperature sensors has always been a focus of microsensor field. A variety of materials have been studied for temperature sensor applications, for example, semiconducting silicon and silicon carbide. Silicon based sensors are typically used at temperatures lower than 350°C due to accelerated material degradation at higher temperature . Silicon carbide based sensors are better than silicon based sensors in high temperature measurement and can be applied in temperatures up to 500°C . Polymer-derived SiAlCN ceramics (PDCs) are another widely studied material that demonstrate properties such as excellent high temperature stability as well as good oxidation/corrosion resistance . PDCs have been considered as a promising material for measuring high temperature . Our early works have showed that PDC sensor head can accurately measure high temperature up to 830°C using data acquisition system from National Instruments. The cost and size of the sensor system must be significantly reduced before it can be deployed for real world applications. In this paper, we develop a temperature sensor using PDC and an embedded system. Comparing to the National Instruments data acquisition equipment used in the previous paper, the newly developed embedded sensor is much smaller (9.7?dm3 versus 0.3?dm3), lighter (5.97?kg versus 0.19?kg), and cheaper (approximately $8000 versus $170). A WiFi module is also added so the temperature measurement can be transmitted wirelessly. The embedded board and WiFi module used in this paper are commercially available. The experiments in this paper demonstrate the possibility of deploying PDC based sensors for real world applications. 2. Fabrication of the PDC Sensor Head In this study, the PDC sensor head is fabricated by following the procedure reported previously . In brief, 8.8?g of commercially available liquid-phased polysilazane (HTT1800, Kion) and 1.0?g of aluminum-tri-sec-butoxide (ASB, Sigma-Aldrich) are first reacted together at 120°C for 24 hours under constant magnetic stirring to form the liquid precursor for SiAlCN. The precursor is then cooled down to room temperature, followed by adding 0.2?g of dicumyl peroxide (DP) into the liquid under sonication for 30 minutes. DP is the thermal initiator which can lower the solidification temperature and tailor the electrical properties . The resultant liquid mixture is solidified by heat-treatment at 150°C for 24 hours. The disk-shaped green bodies are then prepared by ball-milling the solid into fine powder of ~1?μm and subsequently uniaxially pressing. A rectangular-shaped sample is cut from the discs and pyrolyzed at 1000°C for 4 hours. The entire fabrication is carried out in high-purity nitrogen to avoid any possible contamination. Pt wires are attached to the sensor head by two ceramic fasteners on the two mounting holes on the diagonal of the sensor head. To improve the conductivity, both mounting holes are coated with Pt plasma; see Figure 1. To measure temperature using the PDC sensor, the processor needs to perform the following tasks: () supply voltage to the circuit through DAC7724; () sample the circuit output using AD7656 and convert the output to temperature measurement; and () transmit data to readers from the RS232 port. The input signal to the conversion circuit is a sinusoidal signal of ±10?V. The sinusoidal signal can bypass the parasitic capacitor in series to the PDC probe. The noise from the furnace coil can also be greatly subdued. The sensor output voltage is approximately sinusoidal as well and its magnitude can be computed using Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) or curve fitting using recursive least square method (RLSM) . Comparing to FFT, RLSM is more computationally efficient but may have numerical instability because TMS320F28335 only supports IEEE 754 floating-point arithmetic. Here we prefer FFT for fast prototyping purpose because Texas Instruments provides FPU library that performs floating FFT routines on C2000 series microcontroller. Next we explain how the sensor works. A high-priority interrupt service request (ISR1) based on a CPU timer continues reading a look-up-table and drives the DAC7724 to generate the input signal . The frequency of is controlled by the frequency of ISR1. ISR1 also samples circuit output from AD7656 and adds the data to a 1024-point buffer if there is no FFT running. Once the buffer is filled up, ISR1 stops writing the buffer and the FFT routine starts. The FFT routine is implemented in another slower low-priority interrupt service (ISR2). Once the FFT routine is completed, ISR2 will give ISR1 the permission to clean and write the input buffer again. The magnitude from the FFT is used as the circuit output . The software flowchart is shown in Figure 4. High temperature sensors capable of operating in harsh environments are needed in order to prevent disasters caused by structural or system functional failures due to increasing temperatures. Most existing temperature sensors do not satisfy the needs because they require either physical contact or a battery power supply for signal communication, and furthermore, neither of them can withstand high temperatures nor rotating applications. This paper presents a novel passive wireless temperature sensor, suitable for working in harsh environments for high temperature rotating component monitoring. A completely passive LC resonant telemetry scheme, relying on a frequency variation output, which has been applied successfully in pressure, humidity and chemical measurement, is integrated with a unique high-k temperature sensitive ceramic material, in order to measure the temperatures without contacts, active elements, or power supplies within the sensor. In this paper, the high temperature sensor design and performance analysis are conducted based on mechanical and electrical modeling, in order to maximize the sensing distance, the Q factor and the sensitivity. In the end, the sensor prototype is fabricated and calibrated successfully up to 235oC, so that the concept of temperature sensing through passive wireless communication is proved. This paper aims to develop a prototype for a web-based wireless remote temperature monitoring device for patients. This device uses a patient and coordinator set design approach involving the measurement, transmission, receipt and recording of patients’ temperatures via the MiWi wireless meter iot solution. The results of experimental tests on the proposed system indicated a wider distance coverage and reasonable temperature resolution and standard deviation. The system could display the temperature and patient information remotely via a graphical-user interface as shown in the tests on three healthy participants. By continuously monitoring participants’ temperatures, this device will likely improve the quality of the health care of the patients in normal ward as less human workload is involved. Background During the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003, hospitals became treatment centres in most countries. Because a patient’s core body temperature is one vital parameter for monitoring the progress of the patient’s health, it is often measured manually at a frequency ranging from once every few hours to once a day . However, such manual measurement of the temperature of patients requires the efforts of many staff members. In addition, when the patients suffer from conditions that result in abrupt changes of the core body temperature, e.g., due to infection at a surgical site after surgery, the staff on duty will not know such a temperature change occurred until the next temperature measurement. Such a delay may lead to patients being unnoticed while their health conditions worsen, which is dangerous because a difference of 1.5 degrees Celsius can result in adverse outcomes . Furthermore, there is always a need to have a monitoring system to improve the quality of health care , such as temperature monitoring of elderly and challenged persons using a wireless remote temperature monitoring system. Body temperature can be used to monitor the pain level of a patient following an operation or after shoulder endoprosthesis . In some cases, the tissue transient temperature was monitored during microwave liver ablation for the treatment of liver metastases. Instead of using a temperature sensor, pulse-echo ultrasound was used to visualize changes in the temperature of the patient’s body. In addition, a non-contact temperature-measuring device, such as a thermal imaging camera , was successfully used to detect human body temperature during the SARS outbreak. However, it can be quite expensive to equip each patient room with a thermal imaging camera. In addition, there are a few wireless temperature measuring solution (e.g., CADIT?, Primex?, and TempTrak?) on the market that are used to monitor and store a patient’s temperature for medical research by using body sensor networks . Most of these systems consist of an electronic module and a temperature-sensing device. The systems include a stand-alone electronic module with a display screen that allows the temperature sensor data to be transmitted over a secure wireless network. However, these systems can be difficult to reconfigure to suit the current database system used in the hospital. In addition, the current systems using short message service (SMS)-based telemedicine systems with hardware equipment were developed to monitor the mobility of patients. However, proper hardware and software to manage the messages and the patient’s temperature for display on mobile phones are not widely available. Hence, a medical device to continuously measure the body temperature of patients using a wireless temperature receiver is required. With such a wireless temperature sensor system, nurses will no longer have to manually measure the temperature of patients, which will free their time for other tasks and also reduce the risk associated with coming into contact with patients with contagious diseases, such as SARS. The readings will be transmitted wirelessly to the central nurse station, where they can be monitored by the staff-on-duty. In addition, the current and past history of the body temperature measurements can be stored in an online database, which allows the medical staff to access the database when they are not in the hospital. To the best of our knowledge, a MiWi wireless (besides using the Zigbee) temperature-monitoring system using a patient and coordinator set design that provides remote internet access to the temperature database has not been reported in any publication. The objective is therefore to develop and implement a prototype temperature-monitoring system for patients using a MiWi wireless remote connection to the nurse’s station for frequent real-time monitoring. The temperature monitoring system was designed based on a proposed patient and coordinator set design approach. The proposed temperature-monitoring system for use in normal ward will likely to improve the quality of the health care of the patients as the nursing workload is reduced. In this paper, the discussion on medical regulations and policy will not be included.
Publish Date: 22-09-21
Description: Air compressors are an invaluable tool for both industrial work and DIY at home, and there are several different types to choose from depending on the job you need doing. Air compressors have a number of uses, such as to fill gas cylinders for industrial purposes and scuba diving, to create the power needed to run pneumatic tools and spray guns, for pumping up automotive tyres, and within heating and air conditioning systems. As we’ve touched on here, there are myriad uses for screw air compressor both in commercial and domestic environments. Within the category of air guns, there are several types, each of which is suitable for a different job. We’ve compiled a guide to all the major types of air compressor, how they work and how they differentiate from one another. Whether you’re an engineering manager or in charge of facilities for your company, being informed about how air compressors function and what they’re used for is handy and can help you make the proper decisions for your business and industry. Get all the information you need to know about air compressors, complete with the infographic below, with our comprehensive guide. We’ll address the benefits of using premium air compressors in your industry, as well as the questions of ‘what are compressors?’ and ‘how does a compressor work?’, covering all the essentials in one convenient place. The infographic below shows how a Hydrovane series rotary sliding vane air compressor works Since their invention in the 19th Century, mechanical, automated air compressors have continued to be one of the most widely used tools in industrial settings. Air compressors provide a continuous stream of power that is safer and cooler than many other forms of energy. For many industries, such as metal work and mining environments, air compressors are an absolutely essential tool. After the basic utilities of water, gas and electric, compressed air is actually considered to be the fourth utility. Air compressors are also an affordable choice of tool for many manufacturing jobs, as they are durable, and high quality types require minimal maintenance and repairs. Between the two main categories of compressor – the scroll (piston) compressor and the rotary screw (reciprocating) compressor, you have a tool for every type of industrial and commercial setting, as well as various domestic uses. The most common types of regular screw air compressor are single and dual phase, both of which operate in the same fundamental way, only dual phase has one more step involved in the compression process. In a single phase compressor, there is one chamber and the air is compressed a single time; in a dual phase, there are two chambers and the air is put through compression twice. Be careful not to confuse single and dual phase compressors with the number of cylinders a compressor has. Both types of compressor use two cylinders; one-cylinder compressors are less common, because air balancing is made easier with two cylinders. The difference between single and dual stage compressors is that in the former the cylinders are both the same size; in the latter they are different sizes. How Do Single and Dual Phase Compressors Operate? Single phase compressors, also referred to as piston air compressors, works in a relatively simple and straightforward way. First, air is drawn into the cylinder; from here, it is compressed once by a single piston movement within a vacuum system. The power of this compression is measured in PSI (pounds per square inch) or Bar – the higher the PSI/Bar, the more power the compressor has. In a single stage air compressor, the air is typically compressed at a rate of around 120 PSI (8.2 Bar). After the air has been compressed, it is sent into the storage tank from where it is dispelled into various tools as a source of energy. Dual phase compressors operate the same way, except there are two stages of compression, rather than just one. After the first round of compression, the air is sent into a second chamber, where it is compressed for the second time, at a rate of around 175 PSI (12.1 Bar). After this, the air is sent to a storage tank in which it is cooled down and ready for application. Both types of compressor are typically powered by either an electric or petrol motor, which drives the piston and causes the compression to happen. Single Phase and Dual Phase Applications Both function in fundamentally the same way and can be used for similar tasks, such as operating a pneumatic drill or other high-powered tools such as those found in a manufacturing plant. Single phase compressors tend to be used within domestic settings for smaller workshop jobs done with handheld tools, such as woodwork, metal work and general DIY. Dual phase compressors, on the other hand, are better for larger scale work in operations such as operations needed in vehicle repair shops, pressing factories and other plants where parts are manufactured. Oil-Free vs. Oil-lubricated Air Compressors Another way to compare variable frequency air compressor is to look at whether they use oil or not – there are oil-free and oil-based / lubricated compressors and both are suited to slightly different jobs. For the air to be drawn into the chamber safely and effectively, the piston needs to be in top working order. To work properly, the piston must be lubricated with oil. With regards to lubrication, there are two main types of compressor to choose from: oil-free and oil-based. The oil is used on the cylinder to ensure the compression goes smoothly. The Difference Between Oil-Free and Oil-Based Compressors Oil-free air compressors already have a lubricated cylinder (often with a non-stick material such as Teflon) and therefore require no further maintenance to work properly. Oil-based compressors require oil to be added to the piston area and changed regularly. Just how often you need to change the oil will be outlined in the manufacturer’s manual that came with your compressor. On the whole, oil-free compressors tend to weigh a lot less than oil-based compressors, as not only do they not have the weight of the oil, but they are more compact machines, requiring fewer separate parts to make them work. Oil-free compressors, being less complex in design, also tend to be more affordable than oil-based compressors. However, although they’re more weighty and expensive, oil-based compressors have their benefits. For one thing, they are strong and durable, and usually have a longer lifespan than their oil-free counterparts. This is usually because over time the greasing material (usually Teflon) begins to wear down and lose its lubrication abilities. Another important factor that should be considered when choosing between an oil-free and oil-based compressor is that the oil-less version tends to heat up faster and to a higher temperature than those which use oil. Compressors without oil also make a lot more noise than those with, so if you want a less noisy workplace, this is a factor to consider too. Oil-Free and Oil-based Compressor Applications Oil-free compressors are a great option for those in need of a lightweight, low maintenance tool for home use. Oil-based compressors are better suited to heavy duty jobs and commercial and industrial use, as although they’re generally heavier and require more maintenance, they are also more robust and versatile. For industrial purposes and extensive, day-long use, oil-based compressors are by far the best option. If you’re looking to invest in quality compressors for your business, opting for oil-based machines is almost certainly the best route to take. Within an industrial or commercial setting, there are numerous uses for oil-based PM screw air compressor, including: Vehicle painting and repairs Sanding and woodwork Creating snow banks in ski centres Tools within dentistry and other medical environments Pneumatic construction tools such as nail guns Air cleaning tools such as blowguns Oil-free compressors can be used for domestic use, such as small-scale jobs like blowing up balloons, home workshop and DIY jobs. They are also largely used in industries where there is a need to avoid the product or consumer coming into contact with oil: food and beverage, pharmaceutical and dental, for example. In these sensitive applications, the consequences of having oil contamination in the air are too high to risk, so having an oil free compressor is a must. There is compressed air quality testing from the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) which oil-free technology can help you achieve. Fixed vs. Variable Air Compressors Another factor to consider when choosing the right type of air compressor for your industry is whether they’re equipped with fixed or variable speed. Let’s take a closer look at what these different types of compressor can do for you. The main difference between air compressors that use a fixed speed system and those that use variable speed is the manner in which the motor gets its power. The compression element is much the same across all machines, but the way the motor operates has an effect on the usability, efficiency and lifespan of the machine. How Do VSD Compressors Work? Variable speed compressors (often referred to as VSD (Variable Speed Drive) or VFD (Variable Frequency Drive) – compressors) operates by automatically adjusting the motor speed in accordance with the demand for air. This happens through a system that converts voltage from the mains power supply into a variable frequency. Power is drawn through a converter, inside which it is converted twice. First, it converts AC power into DC power using diodes. A capacitor then cleans the AC, and then converts it to DC using a transistor, which acts as switches. These switches control the frequency of power sent to the motor, which in turn controls the speed of the motor. A VSD air compressor contains this technology, allowing the speed of the motor and the amount of air compression used to be closely controlled. There are pros and cons to both variable speed compressors and their counterpart, fixed speed compressors – check them out below to decide which one is best for your industry. Fixed Speed Pros and Cons Fixed speed air compressors send a consistent, continuous stream of power into the motor, which gives you a reliable frequency in all your air compression jobs. The initial cost of fixed speed compressors is lower than that of variable speed compressors, is easier and cheaper to maintain and is a must-have within industries where the power demand is continuous. This type of compressor is, however, less efficient than its variable speed counterpart. It is also less efficient at saving energy, and can therefore be more expensive to run, with fewer incentives available too. Variable Speed Pros and Cons Variable speed air compressors allow you to control the voltage and the frequency of the power in the motor, giving the user more agency over the tool. This type of compressor is more efficient when it comes to power usage, as you can easily control your output and only use what you need. Many industries will find that this type of air compressor is ideal, as it can be used in line with the demand of the job. When less power is needed, you can easily adjust the speed of the compressor, saving money and protecting the environment at the same time. The downsides of a variable speed compressor are that there is a higher initial capital cost to pay, and maintenance and repairs are more expensive too. They are also not well suited to applications that require a continuous stream of power. Piston Compressors, Scroll Compressors & Rotary Screw Compressors So far in this article, all the compressors mentioned are operated using pistons, which is a generic system for one type of compressor – the scroll compressor, also known as a reciprocating air compressor. The other type is the rotary screw compressor, which doesn’t have pistons and operates in a slightly different way. Here’s a quick overview of how scroll compressors and rotary screw / reciprocating compressors work, and what the unique benefits are of each of them. Scroll Compressors Scroll compressors are a type of piston compressor, and are also called reciprocating compressors. These are the most common type of two stage air compressor, due to affordability and general availability. But how does a reciprocating air compressor work? The piston system works by having a piston travel downwards, decreasing the pressure inside its internal cylinder through the creation of a vacuum. The sudden change in pressure causes the door of the cylinder to be forced open, and draw air in. When the piston travels up again, the air is forced out of the cylinder at a much higher pressure point. This continues in a reciprocating, ‘scroll’ pattern, hence its name. Pros and Cons of Scroll Compressors Pros: Cools down quickly More efficient use of energy Cons: Higher initial capital cost More complex parts – harder to maintain Rotary Screw Compressors Rather than using pistons, rotary screw compressors rely on rollers to do the compression. Rollers are positioned just off the middle of the central shaft to ensure that one side of the roller is always in contact with the wall. The rollers are powered, rotating extremely fast, causing the same result as scroll compressors: they draw in air at a low pressure and force it out at a higher pressure. Pros and Cons of Rotary Screw Compressors Pros: Good power capacity Lower initial capital price Easy to maintain Cons: Limited cooling abilities Require continuous maintenance checks How Do Low Noise Air Compressors Work? One complaint often heard around air compressors is that some of them are noisy due to friction and a power source, which can be distracting and inconvenient for both commercial and domestic use. The industry has risen to deal with these complaints however, and there are several low noise air compressors to choose from, offering a decibel rating of around 40 dB. 40 dB is considered low noise; 60 dB is considered the safest decibel level for compressors; anything over 85 dB could cause long-lasting damage to your hearing, and you should avoid being exposed to this level for extended periods of time. Low noise and silent air compressors are available in both oil-free and oil-based versions, so just how is the silencing effect achieved? As well as choosing compressors with low decibel levels, one aspect of this technology that makes a big difference is the inclusion of an acoustic chamber for containing the noise. Another tip is to opt for electric-powered compressors, rather than gas-powered, as the former type of power source makes for a quieter machine. The Bottom Line Which type of air compressor you go for depends on a variety of factors. You first need to consider what application the compressors will be used for? Do you need it for continuous, ongoing use in large industrial machinery, or will it be used sporadically? Your answers to these questions will help you decide on whether to go for variable or fixed speed compressors. Another question that you must factor into your decision is: how much do you want to spend? Remember that the initial price of a quality compressor is not the only expense associated with a compressor; consider also the cost of the power needed to run the machine, plus any related ongoing maintenance and repair costs. How much time and energy will investing in high quality compressors save your company? These are all important calculations that should be made before making your decision. Get in touch below if you wish to find out more.
Publish Date: 16-09-21
Description: Learn about the standard iron padlock to understand the main parts, how they work and also how to bypass the mechanical security features to pick the lock. With thanks to Squarespace for sponsoring this article. Go to Squarespace.com for a free trial and when you’re ready to launch, go to http://squarespace.com/engineeringmin… and add code “ENGINEERINGMINDSET” at checkout to save 10% off your first purchase of a website or domain. Padlocks come in many shapes colours and sizes. They have been around for hundreds of years, ranging in complexity of design by different people and civilisations depending on the technology and manufacturing processes they had available. With the industrial revolution came the mass-produced padlock which eventually settled on a pin tumbler design. Called so because inside are some pins and a barrel which rotates or tumbles over. These are strong mechanical locks which are easy to mass produce and we find them used for everything from keeping our bikes where we left them to symbolising the everlasting love between two people on a bridge, and then throwing the key away to ensure it can’t be undone. But these types of locks, especially the cheap ones, can be unlocked without a key if you know the correct method and once we understand how the lock works we’ll learn how to pick the lock. When we look at a padlock the most noticeable feature is the U-shaped shackle at the top. In the unlocked position, one end of the shackle pops out of the main body allowing this component to rotate freely. On the inside surface of the shackle we will find two notches. These form part of the lock mechanism and we’ll see that part shortly. To lock the brass padlock we simply align the end of the shackle with the hole in the lock body and push these together. You’ll feel the internal locking mechanism engage and click into place, the shackle will now be unable to leave the body of the lock. To unlock the padlock we need to insert the correct key into the key hole at the bottom of the lock body, and rotate the key until it releases the shackle. When the key is turned, the plug will rotate. The plug has a number of holes in the top, within each hole there is a small metal cylinder known as a key pin. Each key pin is a different height, and this will correspond to the profile of the key. When a key is inserted into the lock, the key pins will follow the profile of the key and move up and down until the key is fully inserted. Once fully inserted, if the correct key has been used, then the top of each key pin will align with the shear line. The driver pins will have been pushed up and will now fully sit within the housing while the key pins sits fully within the plug. This means the plug is now able to rotate. If the wrong key is inserted then the pins will not align and the plug will be unable to rotate. The key is inserted into the plug. The different sized key pins rest inside a number of holes inside the plug and will move up and down to follow the profile of the key. If the correct key is inserted then the top of the key pins will align with the top of the plug. This pushes the driver pins out of the plug holes and into their respective chamber. The springs ensure the driver pins will be forced into the holes if the wrong key, or if no key, is inserted. With all the pins cleared, the key can rotate the plug. At the end of the plug is a cam which also rotates with the plug. This connects with the arms of the two latches. The latches are pushed outwards by a spring, this pushes the arm against the cam but also pushes the latch into a notch on the shackle preventing the lock from opening without the key. With the correct key inserted the plug is free to rotate, this rotates the cam which pulls the latches inwards against the spring, releasing the shackle. A spring within the shackle chamber pushes the arm outward releasing the lock. Nowadays, there are many gifts you can give your loved ones. Often, you wonder what to give that special someone to let them feel that you love them forever. Perhaps a love padlock engraved with a message would work. Engraved padlocks are the new trend and are available for you online on Amazon, or you can visit your local gift shop. Love locks are excellent symbols of commitment to a lover, a friend, family, e.t.c. They are a perfect way to express to someone what they mean to you. Traditionally, people hang the padlocks on bridges, but you may have other creative ideas. However, some lovelocks do not come with keys. They symbolize locking your love forever. Here are a few engraved padlocks you can consider. Let us begin, 40mm Personalized Engraved Love Lock The solid brass 40mm engraved disc padlock is a beautiful design with a permanent message engraved in bold letters. You can see the writings under most lighting conditions. It comes with an attractive, black gift box, whose price is overall. It is easily customizable according to your tastes and preference. The gift box also has engravings of your liking, and the letters come with a unique design. You can also look for ones on Amazon with the message you want or place an order with the exact specifications you need. You can also visit your nearby gift shop and select or order one from the manufacturer. The engraved love lock has a shiny brass color on the top area and a golden color on the bold writings. It comes with a pair of functional keys which resemble the tri-circle padlock design. The 40mm engraved love lock is an ideal gift for father’s day, mother’s day, birthday parties, wedding anniversaries, valentines, e.t.c. Long Shackle lovelock Double Shaped Heart It comes in many exciting colors such as pink, red, blue, purple, e.t.c. The long shackle would be a lovely present for someone who loves colorful items. You can also order the color you like with the message of your liking engraved on it. There is a gift box available which you can also personalize with a message. The long shackle engraved padlock does not have a key, so on one end, it has a small colored rubber or plastic seal for decoration. The large latch is ideal for hanging on a bridge with your loved ones. It is an excellent gift for colorful occasions such as weddings, Valentine’s day, birthdays, e.t.c. It has a heart-shaped design that captures the essence of love once you set your eyes on it. You can order it online on Amazon or any gift shop outlet available to you. Bird pink 4 Digit Combination Love Lock It has a unique and stunning combination of colors. It can get personalized with paintings of your choice to make it more customizable. The material of the love lock is alloy steel and stainless steel that makes it high security. The four-digit combination makes up for the keys, for you can unlock it automatically using the password you set. It is ideal for locking gym lockers, luggage, sheds, gates, e.t.c. You can personalize it by engraving it with a message to a friend, family, or spouse. You can make a few clicks online and order it from Amazon or visit your nearby gift shop to get a customizable one. Engraved love lock Necklace Engraved Padlocks come in a variety of designs ranging from chokers to necklaces and chains. The pendant can be heart-shaped, square, rectangle, or any personalized shape you want. Gifting a love lock necklace engraved with a message is a thoughtful idea. You can also hang it on bridges if you prefer memorable romantic moments. An engraved golden heart necklace might be just the thing your spouse needs if he/she likes fancy necklaces. You can purchase them on Amazon or your local jewelry or gift shop. Heart Engraved PadLock and Key Set These charming engraved heart lock engraved laminated padlock will melt your heart once you set your eyes on them. They have the most romantic message engraved on them. You can easily customize them with the type of message you want. In most cases, the message will either be just what you wanted to convey or will be beyond your expectations. They also come in the most endearing colors, light pink, shiny grey, silver, gold, e.t.c. The product is a perfect wedding and couple gift since it comes with a wedding card box. These pretty love locks are available on Amazon, or you can check them out at your nearby gift shop. Iron Antique Vintage Engraved Love Lock The Iron Antique Vintage Engraved padlock is also called the “love rock”. It’s common among couples, sweethearts, love birds who usually lock it on a bridge, tree, gate, and other placements to symbolize their love. The interest in love padlocks has spiked since the turn of the century as more people look for different ways to express their love to each other. The vintage love lock features a customized engravement on individual pieces. Some versions have rustic textures to highlight how long both individuals have been together. You can buy the Iron Antique Vintage Engraved Padlock as a gift to your special friend through online platforms such as Etsy. The engraving gives a personal touch to the item added to the lock includes two skeleton keys (one for each partner). Silver-Tone Heart- Shaped Love Lock The silver Tone Heart Shaped love lock gestures a love-shaped design coupled with a personalized engraving on its surface. You can opt for a name, quote, verse, etc. The product also comes with a key for unlocking. The engraved weatherproof padlock comes in a dominant silver-white color, sleek design measuring between 1.75” by 1.40” by 4.0” in height. You can also purchase the product enclosed in a gift box and a bow ribbon for a more personalized touch. The Silver Tone Heart Shaped love lock is suited for gifts, birthday presents, and on special occasions. Vintage Copper Engraved Padlocks Copper love locks have existed for a long time. These love locks come off as extremely durable, safe, and highly customizable. You can purchase the products from online stores such as Amazon and eBay or at antique stores. It becomes even more meaningful when you gift it to your spouse, loved one, or friend. Vintage copper gives off a rustic look that seems to transcend the realms of time. It has an old-school feeling and might feature other unique properties such as the shape of the keys and the overall aesthetics of the engraved padlock. Bottom Line: Engraved padlocks are unique locks in every aspect. In contrast to standard versions, they provide a special message and give off a personalized feel to the product. Engraved padlocks are perfect gifts for occasions such as graduations, valentine’s day, birthdays, engagements, wedding ceremonies, marriage anniversaries, etc. I am sure you will agree with me that before adopting extravagant decisions, such as locking up stuff with them, a gift like an engraved padlock from someone would be something you would treasure.
Publish Date: 16-09-21
Description: This article presents facts and figures on mining equipment safety and reviews various important aspects of mining equipment safety including quarry accidents, electrical accidents, equipment fires, maintenance-related mining accidents, causes of mining equipment accidents and major ignition sources for mining equipment fires. A number of methods considered useful for performing mining equipment safety analysis are also presented. Useful strategies to reduce mining equipment fires and injuries, guidelines to improve electrical safety in the mining industry, and human-factor-related tips for safer mining equipment are discussed. This article analyzes the current research status and development trend of intelligent technologies for underground metal mines in China, where such technologies are under development for use to develop mineral resources in a safe, efficient, and environmentally friendly manner. We analyze and summarize the research status of underground metal mining technology at home and abroad, including some specific examples of equipment, technology, and applications. We introduce the latest equipment and technologies with independent intellectual property rights for unmanned mining, including intelligent and unmanned control technologies for rock-drilling jumbos, down-the-hole (DTH) drills, underground scrapers, underground mining trucks, and underground charging vehicles. Three basic platforms are used for intelligent and unmanned mining: the positioning and navigation platform, information-acquisition and communication platform, and scheduling and control platform. Unmanned equipment was tested in the Fankou Lead-Zinc Mine in China, and industrial tests on the basic platforms of intelligent and unmanned mining were carried out in the mine. The experiment focused on the intelligent scraper, which can achieve autonomous intelligent driving by relying on a wireless communication system, location and navigation system, and data-acquisition system. These industrial experiments indicate that the technology is feasible. The results show that unmanned mining can promote mining technology in China to an intelligent level and can enhance the core competitive ability of China’s mining industry. With the world’s rapid economic development, the demand for mineral resources is increasing. It has been forecast that the depth of more than 33% of the metal mines in China will reach or exceed 1000?m within the next decade. Deep underground mining will become the trend of metal mining in China . To overcome the disadvantages of traditional mining methods, such as excessive resource consumption, poor operating environments, low production efficiency, high safety risks, high production costs, and severe pollution, it is essential to develop an intelligent mining technology for underground metal mines that provides complete safety, environmental protection, and efficiency , . Some developed countries have done a great deal of work in the field of intelligent mining for underground metal mines over many years, and thus have considerable experience in this field. At the beginning of the 21st century, Canada, Finland, Sweden, and other developed countries made plans for intelligent and unmanned mining. At the Stobie Mine, an underground mine belonging to the International Nickel Company of Canada, Ltd. and a typical example of such an automated mine, mobile devices such as scrapers, rock drills, and underground mining trucks are operated remotely and workers can operate the equipment directly from the central control room on the surface . According to the Canadian government’s 2050 long-range plan, Canada intends to transform one of its underground mines in the northern part of the country into an unmanned mine. The plan states that all devices will be controlled from Sudbury via satellite in order to achieve intelligent and unmanned mining. Another intelligent mining program covering 28 topics—including the real-time process control of mining, real-time management of resources, construction of a mine information network, and application of new technology and automatic control—was carried out in Finland. Sweden has developed the Grountecknik 2000 strategic plan for mine automation , , , and veteran mining equipment companies such as Atlas Copco are actively developing a series of unmanned underground gold mining equipment and related control systems that can be used to implement the strategic plan. One of the most famous institutes in unmanned vehicles, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization of Australia, is making great efforts to achieve the intelligent mining of underground mines, with a particular focus on the unmanned control of various types of equipment . Although these developed countries have already invested a considerable amount of time and money into the study of intelligent mining, only a few related studies have been carried out in China, especially in the field of intelligent equipment and platforms. In order to rapidly advance its intelligent mining capabilities, China is supporting many intelligent mining projects, including the Key Technology and Software Development for Digital Mining project and the High-Precision Positioning for Underground Unmanned Mining Equipment and Intelligent Unmanned Scraper Model Research project. In particular, a project titled Intelligent Mining Technology for Underground Metal Mines was established during the 12th Five-Year Plan, in order to promote intelligent mining technology to a certain extent. This article introduces several research achievements and their applications in this project. Trackless mining equipment such as rock-drilling jumbos, down-the-hole (DTH) drills, underground scrapers, underground mining trucks, and underground charging vehicles have been developed using intelligent technologies. Suitable communication techniques, sensors, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, information technology, and computer technology for mining equipment and platforms have been implemented. The experimental results indicate that some of the system’s functionalities are innovative and show good performance. 2. Intelligent mining Mining is one of the oldest industries in the world. environmental protection equipment techniques have passed through a rapid change from artificial production, mechanized production, and on-site remote-control production, to intelligent and fully automated production. In order to move the mining industry forward, mechanization tools have been developed, single-equipment and independent systems have been automated, and the entire mining production process has been highly automated . By integrating information technology with the industrialization of mining technology, intelligent mining technology has been rapidly developed, based on mechanized and automated mining, as shown in Fig. 1. This has resulted in the gradual upgrading of intelligent processes in mining equipment; unmanned and centralized mining equipment have now entered the stage of practical application, which will significantly advance the automation and information technology used in mining . Integrated communication, sensors, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, information technologies, computer technologies, and unmanned control equipment were combined in order to achieve intelligent mining technologies, as shown in Fig. 2. Such technologies are based on precise, reliable, and accurate decision-making and production process management through real-time monitoring; they allow mine production to be maintained at the optimum level, and lead to improved mining efficiency and economic benefits. In this way, green, safe, and efficient mining can be achieved. Taking a typical trackless mining technology as an example, intelligent mining technology can be divided into three layers—the control layer, transport layer, and executive layer . As shown in Fig. 3, the executive layer mainly consists of trackless mining equipment such as rock-drilling jumbos, DTH drills, underground scrapers, underground mining trucks, or underground charging vehicles. The transport layer mainly includes a ubiquitous information-acquisition system, wireless communication system, and precise positioning and intelligent navigation system. The control layer is designed as a system-level platform, and is responsible for intelligent mining process scheduling and control. This is the core of the entire system, because all intelligent mining-related functions and control ideas are implemented through this platform. First, a reasonable gold and diamond mining equipment plan is designed by analyzing the reserves of mine resources and geological conditions in combination with the underground production schedule. Next, an intelligent scheduling and control platform is developed. Control instructions for the equipment are sent through the transport layer to a specific piece of equipment in order to perform a mining task at a specific position and time. Within the executive layer, the control layer collects current information on the tunnel and basic information about the vehicle in real time; this information can be used to determine the location of the equipment or adjust it at any time until that entire stage of the mining plan is successfully completed. Intelligent trackless mining technology is based on intelligent unmanned equipment at the executive layer, such as rock-drilling jumbos, DTH drills, underground scrapers, underground mining trucks, or underground charging vehicles. The functions of intelligent and unmanned diamond mining equipment differ according to the different tasks each piece of equipment must carry out. 3.1. Intelligent rock-drilling jumbo Rock drilling is the key process in mining, and plays a very important role in productivity, cost, and efficiency. Different geological conditions require different mining methods, and different methods require different types of rock drilling. A hydraulic rock-drilling jumbo is needed for medium-length hole drilling (i.e., depth of 20–30?m, diameter of 60–100?mm) . An intelligent and unmanned rock-drilling jumbo has been designed to support intelligent mining technology and efficiently complete drilling work. Remote control and a virtual-reality display were the first basic technologies implemented in the unmanned hydraulic rock-drilling jumbo. Fig. 4 shows the initial unmanned control platform for the jumbo on the surface. The virtual prototype display system, including on-site audio and video signals, is well-integrated in order to increase the feeling of immersion while performing remote-control operations. Furthermore, the rock-drilling jumbo is autonomously controlled and operated in the tunnel under the guidance of a positioning and navigation system. By coordinating the positioning system and altitude control system, the jumbo can achieve autonomous driving to the location from the dispatch layer. This is a major step toward achieving continuous operation without interference. Given the coordinates of the drilling-hole position in the three-dimensional (3D) digital map of the mine, the identification of the stope top and floor and the accurate positioning of the rock-drilling system can be achieved independently. This provides a basis for unmanned operation. The intelligent control flow diagram is shown in Fig. 5. The rock-drilling parameters are independently adjusted according to the rock conditions. The intelligent rock-drilling jumbo (shown in Fig. 6) is equipped with components for intelligent blockage prevention, rock-characteristic acquisition, and frequency matching; an automatic rod function; and a fully automatic drill-pipe bank. The hole-blasting parameters are specified independently, according to the scheduling system that is used, in order to ensure continuous drilling.
Publish Date: 16-09-21
Description: Do you want to know the steps to setting up a rice milling business? Do you want to know how to get your own custom package rice product to sell? This article will show you all the steps involve.In our earlier article, we have discussed in details how to start a rice farming business. The steps discuss will help you put your rice business idea into reality. Today, I will be sharing the procedures to starting a rice milling business. Rice is a staple food in most of the countries in the world. The rice farmers grow, sell the rice and use it as the major daily food source. Rice milling business has been around for a long time. Especially in countries where rice farming is their major source of income. According to reports, the middle east is the leading import and export region. This account for 35% of world’s rice imports and about 75% of total exports. However, rice milling business is one of the business in the agriculture that grows fast and help in economic development. What is rice milling? This is the step in the post production of rice that involves the removal of husk and bran layers, which produce rice that can be edible free of impurities. The rice comprises of about 20% of husk and 11% bran layers, which leaves you with about 69% edible rice free from impurities. Want to start a rice milling business? Do you want to invest in rice milling business? If your answer is yes, read on. In this article, you’ll have a complete overview on how to start and run rice mill business. The raw material is available The major raw material is rice cultivated from the rice farmers. It’s going to be difficult to run out of it. Because more people are starting their rice farm. You can find people who will need the services of your rice mill in removing their husk and padding. Profit can come from the husk too Apart from the services and the product you do, the rice husk can also make you profit. The husk is used to create poultry feed and sheep. You’re reducing unemployment Modern rice milling process requires the use of modern rice milling machines which will be handled by people you employed. It simply means you’re reducing people redundancy by creating job opportunities. Challenges of the rice milling business It can be capital intensive Modern rice milling machines are what makes the milling process easier and get the desired finish product. But the machines can be capital intensive. For many who are not financially buoyant, you’ll need to find investors who can invest in the business. And you can’t find someone to finance the business, it becomes really difficult to put the rice milling business idea to work. Constant maintenance is required Unlike traditional rice milling machines, the modern iron roller rice mill will require routine maintenance for it to give the required efficiency that produces the desired output. The cost of maintaining such machines can be expensive. Rice milling is one of the post-harvest handling technology that is quite popular in agriculture (rice farmers). This discrete rice mill mchine has helped many farmers in terms of processing paddy to rice. In the aspect of business, these machines are also able to increase the marketability of agricultural products as opposed to selling in the form of paddy directly. On the other hand, demand for rice continues to increase, because rice has been a staple food for most countries in the world. Hence the development of rice mill machine is more effective, more efficient and more quality is promising. In the processing of un-hulled rice, in order to produce high-quality rice, we have to use some machines like paddy rice huller machine, husk separator, rice polisher and rice sifter. (1) Paddy rice huller machine is used to break and release bran (husk). Input materials of this machine is a un-hulled rice with a moisture content of about 14% and output in the form of brown rice (pure white). (2) Husk separator is used to separate grain of rice and husk using a blower system. The system utilizes the difference in specific gravity between rice and husk. Rice husking machine has a smaller specific gravity to be sucked by the blower, while rice tend not to be affected by the air blower and straight out through the rice outlet. (3) Rice grinder is used to remove the epidermis (aleuron) on brown rice to produce white rice that is ready to be marketed or cooked. This machine uses the screw extruder system in the cylinder which has the inner surface uneven. When brown rice fed into the cylinder it will jostle and rub against the cylinder surface which causes the epidermis to be eroded. (4) Grain grinding machine is used to separate the rice based group quality such as whole rice (best quality) and broken rice (second quality). This machine uses a filter screen plate or cylinder shaped. Rice with some sort of quality level will be mixed again with a certain ratio to determine the selling price before the rice is packaged to be marketed. This article will explain in more detail on the description of the machine, but it is limited to brown rice huller and separator machine. Both machines will be combined into one machine as the title of this article, namely combined rice machine: paddy rice huller, chaff cutter and husk separator. Description of these machines include machine construction, main part of the machine, basic concept of brown rice huller and separator, machine principle and machine operation.
Publish Date: 09-09-21
Description: What are galvanized pipes? Galvanized pipes are steel pipes that have been dipped in a protective zinc coating to prevent corrosion and rust. Galvanized steel pipe was commonly installed in homes built before 1960. When it was invented, galvanized pipe was an alternative to lead pipe for water supply lines. Today, however, we have learned that decades of exposure to water will cause galvanized pipes to corrode and rust on the inside. What do galvanized pipes look like? When first installed, galvanized pipes looks similar to a nickel in color. But as it ages, galvanized pipe may appear much duller, lighter, or darker, depending on its environment. We’ve also seen homes where the water pipes have been painted, so it can be difficult to tell at first glance. How can I tell if I have galvanized pipes? If you can’t tell by looking at your pipes, there is a quick test to tell if they are galvanized. Simply grab a flat head screwdriver and a strong magnet. Start by finding your water line and scratch the outside of the welded steel pipe with the screwdriver. Compare your results: Copper The scratched area will look like a copper penny. A magnet will NOT stick to it. Plastic The scratched area will appear ivory or white in color. A magnet will NOT stick to it Galvanized steel The scratched area will have a silver-gray color. A strong magnet will stick to it. Lead The scratched area will have a dull silver-gray color, and the metal will usually be soft and easy to scratch. A magnet will NOT stick to it. Lead LSAW welded pipes are easy to bend and may be misshapen. If you have lead pipes, we recommend replacement if at all possible. Be sure to scratch test your pipes in multiple areas. It is not uncommon to have more than one type of piping on your water line. Do galvanized pipes contain lead? The galvanized pipes installed on water lines between 1880 and 1960 were dipped in molten, naturally occurring zinc. Naturally occurring zinc is impure, so these pipes, such as boiler pipe, fluid pipe, coating steel pipe, were bathed in zinc that also contained lead and other impurities. The zinc coating elongated the life of the steel pipes, but added small amount of lead and other substances that could potentially harm inhabitants. Additionally, if your galvanized pipes were ever connected to lead plumbing (including service lines) there is more cause for concern. The corrosion inside galvanized steel pipes could have trapped small pieces of the lead. Even if the lead piping was removed years ago, the galvanized steel pipes could still periodically release the trapped lead into the water flow. Chicago didn’t stop using lead pipes for service lines until 1986, and an estimated 400,000 lead service lines are still in use in Chicago alone. The only way to ensure that lead is not mobilized from plumbing to tap in a given home is to fully replace the galvanized plumbing and any lead service lines. What other problems can galvanized pipes cause? Low Water Pressure Due to the restriction of the line, corrosion in galvanized pipes can cause lower water pressure throughout your home. Uneven Distribution of Water If some of your taps have low water pressure, but others don’t, this could be a symptom of galvanized pipes. Corrosion can build up unevenly. Also, part of the galvanized steel piling pipe line could have been replaced in your home, but not everywhere. Discoloration of Water Galvanized SSAW welded pipes can release iron and cause discoloration. A clear indicator of this is a br own stain on a porcelain sink. Leaks Given enough time, galvanized pipes will rust through and cause more damage to your home.
Publish Date: 07-09-21