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Machine learning assisted design of new lattice core for sandwich structures with superior load carrying capacity

Sandwiching Machine: biscuits may be automatically sandwiched with cream or jam or with two ingredients. The biscuits are normally fed manually from the packing table to a set of vibratory conveyors. The machines may have multilanes, usually from two up to six lanes. Each lane may produce 200–800 sandwiches per minute, depending on the product and machine characteristics. Cookie cappers are full width biscuit making machine systems. Chocolate tempering: when pure chocolate is used, accurate temperature control during the process is essential. The temperature control to seed and produce stable beta fat crystals that avoid ‘bloom’ is carried out in a tempering tube that may be a separate unit or incorporated in the enrobing machine. Chocolate enrobing: chocolate coating of biscuits is a continuous in-line process. The biscuits are delivered directly, after cooling to around 25°C, to an enrobing machine. The biscuit depositing machine are transported through the enrober on an open wire mesh conveyor. They may be fully coated or half coated with chocolate. Chocolate cooling: the chocolate is cooled in tunnels with air/water cooling and accurate temperature control to ensure a clear, glossy surface to the products.

There’s a lot to be said for the humble sandwich; it can serve as a simple snack or dressed up and elevated to become a full meal. But there’s something about the combination of hot metal plates and bread that takes sandwich making to the next level, and this is where sandwich toasters and toastie makers come in.

These versatile bits of kit aren’t just reserved for toasting sandwiches; many come with different plates for different tasks. Some have waffle plates, others have flat plates and grill plates for toasted sandwiches, some even open up flat for table-top grilling. Before making a purchase, consider what you want to use your toastie maker or sandwich toaster for. Are you looking to make bog-standard cheese toasties or are you after a multifaceted machine that can be used a couple of different ways? We tested a range of different models to find the best sandwich toaster for you. 

For more unbiased expert buyer’s guides, visit our reviews section to find 400+ round-ups of everything from the best bread makers and best toasters to the best bread bins.

But, when I recently talked to a bunch of experts about how to build awesome sandwiches, I decided it was high time I got back into the homemade-sammy game. It may not be quite as easy, but it's certainly still cheap, it's even more customizable, and, I have to admit, that extra bit of work makes it taste a heck of a lot better at the end. Then again, if I'm going to go the extra mile with a sandwich, I want it to look as good as it tastes. I want it to stay intact when I travel, and I want eating it to feel effortless. I want to be able to pull it out of my bag, give it a nice long look, and say daaamn, sandwich, before crushing it between my jaws.


How to Make a Better Grilled Cheese

I want to wrap it like a badass—albeit a badass with a mild case of OCD.

So this weekend, I asked the sandwich guy at my corner bodega to give me a lesson, and he graciously complied. Turns out the process is crazy easy and crazy handy—with a few basic folds and turns, you'll have a sandwich that'll keep its shape and hold all your carefully arranged ingredients in place, whether you're going on a picnic, biscuit packaging machine a lunch box, or taking a road trip. It won't gather condensation and induce sogginess the way a zipper-lock bag will, and, because these wrap jobs hold up even once your sandwich is sliced in half, it'll make eating on the go a whole lot easier and neater, too. All you'll need is parchment or waxed paper and, if you're working with a hot sandwich or planning to slice the sandwich in half, a sheet of aluminum foil.

Wrapping a flat sandwich isn't entirely unlike wrapping a present, only you won't need any tape or ribbon to make this one stay in place. To begin, you'll need a rectangular sheet of parchment (or waxed) paper—you can buy the precut sandwich papers, which'll make measurement even easier, or just cut about a foot off the roll.

Set the paper in front of you on a work surface, vertically (i.e., portrait, not landscape, orientation). Then place your sandwich in the center of the paper; if your bread has a discernible top, bottom, and sides, set it so the top is away from you.

Next, bring the top and bottom edges of the paper together over the center of the sandwich and line them up. Fold the edges down by half an inch, crease sharply, and then continue folding in half-inch turns, creasing each time, until the fold is flush with the surface of the sandwich. Depending on the size of your sandwich and the length of your paper, the number of folds will vary. Try not to squish the sandwich!

The left and right sides of the paper will now look like flattened tubes. Starting on one of the tubes, use your fingers to press the opposing edges into the center, forming a pleated triangle. Press down and crease the triangle's edges, including at the base of the sandwich, before carefully folding it underneath. Repeat this process on the other side of the sandwich, and voilà, you're done!

The act of creasing and folding, accompanied by the sandwich's weight, will keep the whole thing nice and secure. If you'd like, you can cut the sandwich down the center, perpendicular to the crease, and then wrap the halves together in a sheet of aluminum foil. Otherwise, simply stick your tidy little package in your lunch box, a brown paper bag, or a rectangular container, and you're good to go.

If you're working with a hot sandwich, you can use this same method with nothing but a piece of aluminum foil, though skipping the parchment paper may make it a bit harder to eat on the go, since foil may cling to parts of your sandwich a little more doggedly.

Next up, we have long sandwiches, like subs and wraps, to contend with. Wrapping these sandwiches can be a little tricky to get the hang of, since measuring out the paper will depend on the size of your sandwich. A good rule of thumb is to cut a piece of parchment paper that's about one and a half times the length of the sub or wrap.

Begin by setting your paper vertically in front of you, just like with the flat-sandwich technique. Then place the sandwich diagonally across the paper, near one of the corners. Now lift that corner up and over the sandwich, pressing it flush. From there, roll the sandwich in paper toward the far opposite corner, folding in the sides as you go.

Having a hearty and delicious breakfast in the morning is one of the best ways to start your day right, but some of you may be too lazy or absolutely hate having to cook and wash up after.

What if there are breakfast making machines that are foolproof, easy-to-use and will only require you to wash up a few items after cooking?

We found some breakfast making machines perfect for lazy people on Shopee Singapore, so read on to check them out!

Let's start with the simplest and most obvious breakfast making machine - a sandwich and waffle maker. A nicely toasted sandwich is one of the most popular breakfast options so make your own at home with this handy machine.

It comes in two sweet pink and mint pastel colours to spruce up your kitchen and brighten your day whenever you use it. Each maker comes with a sandwich and waffle hotplate, but you can purchase extra hotplates to make mini donuts and egg waffles.

Think about moving from one pan to another, then moving to the oven to check on your bread when cooking - sounds hectic, right? This 4-in-1 breakfast making machine lets you cook everything at one spot so making breakfast won't feel like such a chore anymore.

You can toast bread, steam eggs and cook congee with one biscuit sandwiching machine so it's no longer an excuse to not have a healthy breakfast every day! Choose from the pastel pink or blue colour.

This multifunctional breakfast making machine is similar to #2 except that it allows you to brew a pot of coffee at the same time. Such machines are designed for light cooking so if you usually have fried eggs, bacon and toast for breakfast, this is one to consider.

It comes in a sleek black and red colour that will go well with any kitchen design.

Shop the multifunctional breakfast making machine at $69.89 on Shopee.

If you don't already own one yourself, you very likely know somebody who owns an air fryer. (Odds are, they've talked about it countless times.) The miniature oven is the current it appliance, and it's easy to see why — the air fryer is easy to operate, shaves minutes off cook time, and gives food a crispy texture without having to rely on loads of grease. It seems like the kind of high-tech appliance you'd see on The Jetsons, but with the added bonus of existing right now.

The air fryer is far more than an appliance that creates low-fat versions of your favorite fried foods; it's so reliable you can truly use it for any meal of the day, including the most important one — breakfast.

Watch how to use your air fryer to make the easiest-ever breakfast sandwich.

Want to make this air fryer breakfast sandwich yourself?

Herein new lattice unit cells with buckling load 261–308% higher than the classical octet unit cell were reported. Lattice structures have been widely used in sandwich structures as lightweight core. While stretching dominated and bending dominated cells such as octahedron, tetrahedron and octet have been designed for lightweight structures, it is plausible that other cells exist which might perform better than the existing counterparts. Machine learning technique was used to discover new optimal unit cells. An 8-node cube containing a maximum of 27 elements, which extended into an eightfold unit cell, was taken as representative volume element (RVE). Numerous possible unit cells within the RVE were generated using permutations and combinations through MATLAB coding. Uniaxial compression tests using ANSYS were performed to form a dataset, which was used to train machine learning algorithms and form predictive model. The model was then used to further optimize the unit cells. A total of 20 optimal symmetric unit cells were predicted which showed 51–57% higher capacity than octet cell. Particularly, if the solid rods were replaced by porous biomimetic rods, an additional 130–160% increase in buckling resistance was achieved. Sandwich structures made of these 3D printed optimal symmetric unit cells showed 13–35% higher flexural strength than octet cell cored counterpart. This study opens up new opportunities to design high-performance sandwich structures.

A lattice structure is formed by stacking lattice unit cells cheek by jowl in any desired order. The entire lattice structure’s performance depends on the construction of the lattice unit cell it is made of. Extensive research has been carried out in design, fabrication and evaluation of these lightweight architectures. Depending on the number of struts and number of joints in a single unit cell, it can be classified as a stretching or bending dominated structure1. In a stretching dominated structure, the primary mode of failure is through stretching while in a bending dominated structure the primary mode of failure is through bending. Compared to foam and bending dominated lattice structures, stretching dominated lattice structures were proven to perform better in terms of strength and stiffness1. Several lattice unit cells were proposed with superior performance and various advantages in structural, thermal, impact, vibrational and acoustic domains2,3,4,5,6. Octet lattice structure is one of the best truss-based lattice structures among stretching dominated lattice unit cells3. Gyroid and double gyroid structures manufactured through additive manufacturing exhibited decent impact absorption capabilities and additional advantage with the same stiffness in all the axial directions4. Hollow micro truss lattice structures were studied for their enhanced energy absorption5. Hybrid sandwich panels made of pyramid truss structures as core were fabricated with higher damping performance6. Several numerical and experimental studies were conducted by various groups to reinforce the proposed structures. Linear and nonlinear effective properties of lattice structure were studied using continuum theory models3,7,8,9,10. The effective properties of octet lattice structure were initially studied by Deshpande and Fleck3.

The fabrication techniques and structural performance of lattice cored sandwich structures were explored by different groups11,12,13,14. Selective laser melting (SLM) is used to manufacture bio-inspired kagome sandwich panels with titanium core. The compression and shear properties of these sandwich structures are evaluated and proved to perform better than honeycomb aerospace core structures11. Stereolithography (SLA) is used to print several lattice cores made of epoxy-based photopolymer resin and sandwich plates made of carbon fiber reinforced face sheets which are co-cured in two-stage manufacturing process. The compression and flexural properties of the sandwich structures were evaluated12. Bending response of graded lattice core sandwich structures is evaluated which achieves minimum weight sandwich structures13. Silicon rubber molds were used to fabricate CFRP tetrahedral core sandwich structures and tested for compression and shear strengths14. It is known that lattice core in sandwich structures plays an important role in the overall load carrying capacity of the sandwich. With the advancement in 3D printing, lattice core with very complex geometrical configurations can be manufactured. Therefore, further improvement in the load carrying capacity in lattice cored sandwich depends on optimization of lattice cores.

  • Created: 14-01-22
  • Last Login: 14-01-22

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