History & Development Of Printing Machines
Printers in Indonesian mean printers (printing devices
) and as already known together, the printer is an output device in the form of hardware that is connected to a computer or other digital device. The printer has a function to print text, images and other digital displays to various print media such as paper and the like.
The printer in its development has undergone rapid changes as well as output devices and other computer inputs. The development of printers is still continuing today. Competition between printer manufacturers is increasingly intense where each producer constantly releases their best innovations and products. The evolution of the printer has also been done a lot since the invention of this device until now both in terms of size, speed, price, quality, quantity, and operating techniques.
Very simple forms of printing can be found in China and Korea around 175 AD. The look is upside down on wood, and then bronze has been made this year. The tool is then spiked with ink and then placed on a piece of paper and gently scrubbed using a bamboo stick. Functions that are almost similar to today's stamps.
Ancient Chinese Prints
The Chinese made many discoveries. They found paper in the first century and moveable types made of clay around the 11th century. Koreans first made a moveable type from bronze in the mid-13th century. However, there is no known connection between the early discovery of Asians and the discovery of printing in Europe in the 15th century.
The innovations made by Chinese people to create ink and block printing greatly influence the writing tradition. However, developments in China are not as powerful as developments in the European region. This is because the Chinese alphabet writing has thousands of specific ideograms, making it very difficult to apply to typewriter media. The impact is that there are almost no significant changes regarding the efficiency of production in China as developments in Europe have occurred.
A major breakthrough came around 1440 by Johannes Gutenberg from the city of Mainz, Germany. Gutenberg created a method of casting letter pieces on metal blends made from a mixture of lead, lead, and antimony that is critical for producing durable prints that produce high-quality printed books. Its discovery is considered to be the most ingenious invention, the special matrix allows the formation of new prints that are fast and precise from a uniform frame and prove to be more suitable for printing than clay, wood or bronze molds created in East Asia
Gutenberg is also recognized for introducing oil-based inks that are more durable than the water-based inks that were used. As a printing material he used a manuscript made of animal and paper skin, the last of which was introduced in Europe from China using the Arab method several centuries ago. People in Europe at that time were indeed developing movable prints, including those made by goldsmith Procopius Waldfoghel from France and Laurens Janszoon Coster from the Netherlands. However, they are not known to have contributed specific progress to the printing press.
Over time, printer technology continues to be developed to adjust the needs of users in its time. Post World War II in the early 1950s, in Europe there was a very rapid cultural development to make the need for a fast and inexpensive writing document production process. At this time, the latest innovation in the printing world began to be developed. Starting from IBM, which introduced the first dot matrix printer. Then, in 1984 ink jet printers were first introduced and produced on a large scale in 1990.
Different Types Of Industrial Printing Machines
In the industrial set up of the economy, the printing machines
are growing in large numbers. Different printing techniques and processes are used by every industry for effective communication. Any machine used in printing ink on the substrate (printing medium) which can be cloth, paper or plastic, is referred to as the printing machinery. By applying pressure to the substrate, the printing machinery transfers the ink on the printing medium resting on an inked platform composed of movable type. The development of industrial printing machines changed a lot of things in the world. It would make transfer and preservation of historical records, scientific findings, and knowledge easy and possible. There's a great advancement in the printing machinery introduced in the market today given the improvement in science and technology. There's a competition in the industry, as many companies are now making printing press. As every company is introducing better features and making an effort to overcome the other competitors, this has led to the introduction of many enhanced features in printing machinery. With the introduction of various features in these types of machinery, printing is now easier to be done than it was in earlier days.
Today, printing machinery is available in many sizes to suit different needs. Bigger sizes of printing machinery are available for heavy-duty printing or big-time printing businesses. You can get small and medium sizes too for small and medium printing businesses. The machinery size determines the volume of printing that will be done in a day, to a greater extent. When compared with small-sized printing machinery, the heavy industrial printing machines can print a lot of things per hour or regularly. There are different types of printing machines for printing on a different medium since different printing machines make use of different printing technology. Each of the below-mentioned printing machinery is meant to serve a particular purpose. You must consider your printing needs or the type of printing that you are doing before you want to buy or order for your printing machine. Several factors such as the size, the type of printing done, the seller, the brand, and others determine the cost.
Types Of Printing Machines
Flexographic Printing Machine
Letterpress Printing Machines
Electrostatic Printing Machine
Rotogravure Printing Machines
One of the most common methods of film manufacture is Blown Film
(also referred to as the Tubular Film) Extrusion. The process involves extrusion of a plastic through a circular die, followed by "bubble-like" expansion. The principal advantages of manufacturing film by this process include the ability to:
Produce tubing (both flat and gussetted) in a single operation
Regulation of film width and thichness by control of the volume of air in the bubble, the output of the extruder and the speed of the haul-off
Eliminate end effects such as edge bead trim and non uniform temperature that can result from flat die film extrusion
Capability of biaxial orientation (allowing uniformity of mechanical properties)
Blown Film Extrusion can be used for the manufacture of co-extruded, multi-layer films for high barrier applications such as food packaging.
Plastic melt is extruded through an annular slit die, usually vertically, to form a thin walled tube. Air is introduced via a hole in the centre of the die to blow up the tube like a balloon. Mounted on top of the die, a high-speed air ring blows onto the hot film to cool it. The tube of film then continues upwards, continually cooling, until it passes through nip rolls where the tube is flattened to create what is known as a ' lay-flat' tube of film. This lay-flat or collapsed tube is then taken back down the extrusion ' tower' via more rollers. On higher output lines, the air inside the bubble is also exchanged. This is known as IBS (Internal Bubble Cooling).
The lay-flat film is then either kept as such or the edges of the lay-flat are slit off to produce two flat film sheets and wound up onto reels. If kept as lay-flat, the tube of film is made into bags by sealing across the width of film and cutting or perforating to make each bag. This is done either in line with the blown film process or at a later stage.
Typically, the expansion ratio between die and blown tube of film would be 1.5 to 4 times the die diameter. The drawdown between the melt wall thickness and the cooled film thickness occurs in both radial and longitudinal directions and is easily controlled by changing the volume of air inside the bubble and by altering the haul off speed. This gives blown film a better balance of properties than traditional cast or extruded film which is drawn down along the extrusion direction only.
Cold Cutting Machines: Types and Applications Cold Cutting Machines
: Three Common Types
Three commonly used types of cold cutting machines are pipe cold cutting machines (aka clamshell cutters), cold cutting saws, and abrasive water jet machines. But before we examine each of these, let's clear up what cold cutting actually means.
What is Cold Cutting?
Cold cutting is a procedure used to cut through a material without using heat or a flame, and without producing sparks. This makes the process the safest method for cutting structures in hazardous environments. Typical industries where cold cutting is specified include oil & gas, materials processing, and petrochemicals.
Pipe Cold Cutting Machines
Pipe Cold Cutting Machines are also known by several other names. Most commonly clamshell cutters, split frame cutters, clamshell lathe, and other combinations of these words.
Pipe Cold Cutting Machines are circular in construction and wrap around the pipe in two halves attached together by a hinge.
When fully assembled, the machines work by rotating a cutting tool around the circumference of the pipe. The main purposes of the machines are to make either a straight or beveled cut in preparation for welding.
Different types include low profile, mid-size, and heavy-duty. They are available in sizes to suit all standard pipe diameters – even as large as 177” diameter. The machines are usually powered either from a pneumatic source or a hydraulic pump.
Benefits of Pipe Cold Cutting Machines
The two main benefits of a pipe cold cutting machine (clamshell cutter) are convenience and safety. There is no production of sparks, flames, or any airborne contamination. Additionally, there is no resulting HAZ (heat-affected zone), which can change the properties of the material.
Benefits of Multilayer Blown Film
The benefit of multilayer blown film
plant is that it uses a combination of two characteristics of the PP material and the brightness features of PE material. One can classify this into several types like two layer co-extruded blown film machine, three layer co-extruded blown film, five layer co-extruded blown film and seven layer co-extruded blown film.
The three layer co-extrusion implements a new type of high efficiency and low energy consumption extrusion line with an IBC cooling system inside the bubble.
Some of the other advantages include:
Help produce tubing in a single operation
Regulates film width and thickness depending on the volume of air in the bubble, extruder output, speed of the haul-off.
It eliminates effects such as edge bead trim, non-uniform temperature.
Bi axial orientation is possible.
Can be used for food packaging.