- Created: 15-09-21
qi jin advertisements
Description: What is laser engraving and how does it work? Laser engraving is a process that vaporizes materials into fumes to engrave permanent, deep marks. The laser beam acts as a chisel, incising marks by removing layers from the surface of the material. The laser hits localized areas with massive levels of energy to generate the high heat required for vaporization. To choose the right laser marking process, you should rely on three factors: The markings resistance: the capacity to remain legible under harsh conditions The laser marking speed: the marking time that prevents production bottlenecks The material being marked: its compatibility with the marking method Small Laser Engraving Machine is typically used to engrave metal workpieces that will be exposed to various types of wear or surface treatments. Metal engraving works with steel and aluminum (including anodized and die-casting aluminum). The most outstanding feature of this process is its ability to engrave 2D codes that keep high readability rates after post-process treatments. Those treatments can include shot blasting, e-coating and heat treatments, addressing the most complex traceability issues. But if engraving the most resistant identifiers is not needed, laser etching is generally preferred because it’s a high-speed method that does not rely as heavily on ablation. From Solid to Gas: How It Works Whereas laser etching melts the material surface to change its roughness, Laser Engraver sublimates the material surface to create deep crevices. This means that the surface instantly absorbs enough energy to change from solid to a gas without ever becoming a liquid. To achieve sublimation, the Portable Laser Engraving Machine system must generate enough energy to allow the material’s surface to reach its vaporization temperature within milliseconds. Considering the extreme temperatures required for sublimation, laser engravers are pretty powerful tools. Materials are vaporized into fumes when they reach this temperature. As a result, when you buy a laser system, it should always come equipped with a fume extraction system to protect the work environment and an air knife to protect the laser’s lens. Fiber lasers are the ideal engraving tools for this because they generate a wavelength that reacts well with metals. Find a Laser Engraving Machine If you are looking for a Laser Engraving Machine, this list will help you find the right laser: To integrate custom solutions yourself or with an integrator, view our OEM marking systems, including multiple types of lasers for industrial applications. Our range of laser systems includes fiber lasers and CO2 lasers. For turnkey automated or semi-automated laser solutions, consult our integrated laser machines page. To find information specific to the metal you’ll be marking, scroll through the list of metals. If you need guidance, you can always ask an expert. Why lasers are used for cutting Lasers are used for many purposes. One way they are used is for cutting metal plates. On mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum plate, the Laser Cutting Machine is highly accurate, yields excellent cut quality, has a very small kerf width and small heat affect zone, and makes it possible to cut very intricate shapes and small holes. Most people already know that the word “LASER” is actually an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. But how does light cut through a steel plate? How it works The laser beam is a column of very high intensity light, of a single wavelength, or color. In the case of a typical CO2 laser, that wavelength is in the Infra-Red part of the light spectrum, so it is invisible to the human eye. The beam is only about 3/4 of an inch in diameter as it travels from the laser resonator, which creates the beam, through the machine’s beam path. It may be bounced in different directions by a number of mirrors, or “beam benders” before it is finally focused onto the plate. The focused laser beam goes through the bore of a nozzle right before it hits the plate. Also flowing through that nozzle bore is a compressed gas, such as Oxygen or Nitrogen. Focusing the laser beam can be done by a special lens, or by a curved mirror, and this takes place in the Wood Laser Cutting Machine head. The beam has to be precisely focused so that the shape of the focus spot and the density of the energy in that spot is perfectly round and consistent, and centered in the nozzle. By focusing the large beam down to a single pinpoint, the heat density at that spot is extreme. Think about using a magnifying glass to focus the sun’s rays onto a leaf, and how that can start a fire. Now think about focusing 6 KWatts of energy into a single spot, and you can imagine how hot that spot will get.
Publish Date: 15-10-21
Description: High shear emulsifying machinef is our new product with advanced technology from home and abroad, which strictly complies with the GMP requirement. It is widely used for mixing, dispersing, shearing and homogenizing all kinds of viscous liquid and pastes in wide applied range, food, beverage, cosmetic, chemistry, biochemistry, petrochemical, pigment, dye, dope and pharmacy fields. WRL emulsifying mixer is structured with small size and light weight. Its features of little noise and high efficiency obtain wide acceptance and affection. It operates with simple working principle that distribute the liquid from one phase or several phases to another continue phases. Generally, the phases can not dissolvable with each other. With the help of advanced techniques and proper additives, high tangent speed and strong kinetic energy generated by high speed rotary rotor and mechanical effects can lead to instant, equally, subtly and dispersed emulsification of solid phase, liquid phase and gas phase. After high frequency reciprocating circulation you will get high quality steady mixing product. It is used in a wide range of industrial application: Food industry: chili sauce, gingili, fruit tea, ice cream, butter, jam, soy, miso, red bean paste, peanut milk, protein milk, soymilk, dairy product, malted milk, essence, condiment and all kinds of food and beverage etc. Chemistry industry: oil paint, pigment, dye, dope, lube, diesel oil, Oil catalyst, asphalt Emulsion, modified asphalt, paraffin, Adhesive, scour, plastic, detonator, FRP, Synthetic Leather, colophony, leather and Emulsion explosives. Daily Chemical Industry: toothpaste, scour, cream, lipstick, facial, shampoo, shoeshine, cosmetic, shower concentrate, soap, Coagulant and flavor Medical industry: sirup, Nutrient Solution, Chinese medicines, Pharmacy paste, Biological agents, Cod liver oil, pollen, Placenta, bacterin, ointment, liquid, Fungicides, injection, Antibiotics, Micro encapsulation and Intravenous fluid. Construction industry: all kinds of dope including Internal and external wall dope, antisepsis and waterproof dope, Cold porcelain dope, colorful dope, Ceramic Glaze, nano dope and spraying. Paper making industry: paper pulp, Adhesive, Rosin Emulsion, Paper Additives and Resin Emulsion. Pesticide industry: antiseptic, herbicide, Pesticide EC, Fertilizer, biochemical pesticide and biological pesticide. Other industries: spin industry, Coal flotation agent, rare earth, nanomaterial Scattered depolymerization, reaction, extraction and war industry. Emulsifier, in foods, any of numerous chemical additives that encourage the suspension of one liquid in another, as in the mixture of oil and water in margarine, shortening, ice cream, and salad dressing. A number of emulsifiers are derived from algae, among them algin, carrageenan, and agar. Lecithins, such as those found in egg yolk, are also used as emulsifying agents. The basic structure of an emulsifying agent includes a hydrophobic portion, usually a long-chain fatty acid, and a hydrophilic portion that may be either charged or uncharged. The hydrophobic portion of the emulsifier dissolves in the oil phase, and the hydrophilic portion dissolves in the aqueous phase, forming a dispersion of small oil droplets. Emulsifiers thus form and stabilize oil-in-water emulsions (e.g., mayonnaise), uniformly disperse oil-soluble flavour compounds throughout a product, prevent large ice-crystal formation in frozen products (e.g., ice cream), and improve the volume, uniformity, and fineness of baked products. High Speed Emulsifiers are closely related to stabilizers, which are substances that maintain the emulsified state. The consistency of food products may also be improved by the addition of thickeners, used to add body to sauces and other liquids, and texturizers. These various additives serve a dual purpose: they make food more appetizing by improving appearance and consistency, and they augment its keeping qualities (i.e., extend shelf life). Emulsifiers, stabilizers, and related compounds are also used in the preparation of cosmetics, lotions, and certain pharmaceuticals, where they serve much the same purpose as in foods—i.e., they prevent separation of ingredients and extend storage life. Homogenizers function as mixers that reduce particle size or force immiscible liquids to mix. Pressure imparted on a product by the high shear homogenizer is largely determined by pump pressure or flow diversion through valves and nozzles. In the case of low-pressure homogenizers, fluid velocity is incremented which reduces overall pressure. In addition to the valve homogenizers commonly used in the dairy industry, a number of emulsifying and homogenizing systems that employ different operating principles are available. High-shear blenders and mixers find wide application in the dairy and related industries for the preparation of coarse pre-emulsions. Colloid mills, which operate on the rotor–stator principle, are used for mixing homogenizing medium- and high-viscosity systems, for instance in the preparation of caseins and caseinates. Ultrasonic waves can be used for either preparing emulsions or reducing the size of existing emulsions. For preparing emulsions with extremely small fat globules and very narrow size distributions, microfluidization can be used, where fluid streams are forced to collide at high pressure. Emulsions with extremely monodisperse size distributions can also be prepared by membrane emulsification. Principles and potential applications of so-called low pressure homogenization technologies are outlined in this article.
Publish Date: 09-10-21
Description: 标题：How does a chainsaw work? 内容： What is a chainsaw? The clue is in the name! A chainsaw has two main parts: a saw blade built into a chain, wrapped around a long metal guide bar, and a small, one-cylinder gasoline (petrol) engine (sometimes an electric motor powered by a cord or battery pack). The chain is a bit like a bicycle chain, running around sprockets (gear wheels designed to turn a chain) only with about 30 or so sharp teeth (made from a hardened steel alloy) mounted around it at intervals. Inside the engine, as the piston moves in and out of the cylinder, it pushes a connecting rod that turns a crankshaft. The crankshaft turns gears that are connected (through a centrifugal clutch, explained below) to one of the sprockets on which the chain is mounted—and the chain spins around. What happens inside a chainsaw? Yes, crudely speaking, that's what a chainsaw does: in scientific terms, it converts the chemical energy locked in gasoline into mechanical energy you can use to "do work," turning a tree into logs, sawdust, noise, and heat. Here's a very simplified explanation: The fuel you put in a chainsaw's gas tank contains, in chemical form, all the energy you'll consume cutting down and chopping up logs. To keep it nice and light, a typical chainsaw tank holds just 0.5 liters (1.1 US liquid pints) of gas (a car's gas tank holds maybe 45–55 liters or 12–15 US liquid gallons, which is roughly 100 times more). The fuel feeds through a carburetor to mix it with air. The air-fuel mixture passes into a cylinder, which works much like the ones in a car engine but with only a simple push-pull (two-stroke) action instead of the more complex (four-stroke) cycle used in a car. Inside the cylinder, the air-fuel mix is ignited by a spark (sparking) plug, burns, releases its energy, and pushes a piston back and forth. The piston in a chainsaw engine has a bore (diameter) of about 45mm (1.75 in) and a stroke (traveling distance) of about 33mm (1.3 inches)—so it's less than half the size of a typical car engine piston and moves only half as far. A connecting rod and crank convert the back and forth motion of the piston to rotary motion. A drive shaft takes power to the centrifugal clutch. A chainsaw engine runs all the time, but you don't want the chain spinning unless you're actually cutting wood, like using it as a brush cutter machine: that's dangerous and it wastes energy. The clutch solves this problem. As explained in more detail below, the centrifugal clutch connects the engine and the chain when the engine speed is fast (when the operator pulls on the throttle) and stops the chain from spinning when the engine speed is low (when the chainsaw is just idling). Gears carry power from the clutch to the sprocket that holds the chain. The chain spins around the edge of a long-steel plate called the guide bar, spitting out wood dust as it goes! Advantages and disadvantages of chainsaws Advantages The main advantage of using a chainsaw(like when used as a hedge trimmer)—speed—is fairly obvious. It would be hard to spend an entire day chopping your way through a forest with a handsaw, but you could certainly do that with a chainsaw. A little crude math shows why a chainsaw is maybe 5–10 times quicker than an ordinary hand saw. Think how many planks of wood you could make from a single, trimmed tree trunk: maybe ten or fifteen? Now think how laborious it is to saw through a single plank with a handsaw; cutting through an entire tree is going to take you at least 10 times as long, assuming you don't run out of energy or melt your saw blade first. Let's try a more sophisticated estimate. Suppose you have a tree that is 30cm (roughly 1ft) in diameter and a chainsaw that makes a cut of 0.5mm (0.02in) into the wood with each pass of the chain. That means the chain needs to pass through the wood 600 times (30cm = 300mm and it takes two chain passes to remove each mm). If you're using a powerful chainsaw with a rotational speed of about 2800rpm (call it 3000rpm to make the math easy), the chain will (theoretically) make 600 passes in just 20 seconds. In practice, it'll take somewhat longer. Let's say a minute. How long would it take with a handsaw? Suppose your saw has teeth the same size as the chainsaw's and suppose it's roughly the same length as the chainsaw (and therefore half as long as the chain). You still need to make those 600 passes through the wood. Maybe you're superhuman: suppose you can make one complete pass of the saw each second and keep up that pace constantly. Then it's still going to take, as a minimum, 600 seconds—or 10 minutes. In practice, it's going to take quite a bit longer as you get tired, as the saw slips out of its groove from time to time, and so on. These are only guesstimate, back-of-envelope calculations—but you get the idea: using a chainsaw is certainly several times faster (and probably 5–10 times faster) than using a good handsaw. Disadvantages The two biggest drawbacks of chainsaws are safety and maintenance. Although chainsaws can be used by any fairly strong adult (after suitable training) and many practical uses like earth auger, they are nevertheless inherently dangerous. (I have the manual for a Stihl MS270 chainsaw open beside me as I write this and it's interesting to note that about 16 of the 64 pages—fully a quarter of the text—is devoted to warnings and safety precautions.) The biggest risk comes from a problem called kickback, where the chain catches on something but the engine keeps turning, so the whole saw flies up and backward toward your head (think action and reaction—Newton's third law of motion), potentially causing fatal injuries. Chainsaw helmets with visors offer some protection; so too do chainsaw uniforms (made from synthetic fibers such as nylon, which snag up the chainsaw teeth and bring the machine quickly to a halt). The other big problem with chainsaws is the amount of maintenance they need. A handsaw is delightfully maintenance free: the sawdust you produce simply falls out of the groove you're making. In a chainsaw, the super-fine dust can get caught up in the mechanism and mix with the chain's lubricating oil to make a gungy mess that has to be cleaned out regularly. Again, looking at the manual for the Stihl MS270, it's interesting to see there's a full-page chart spelling out a couple of dozen different checks and maintenance jobs you have to do before starting work each day, or on a weekly, monthly, or annual basis thereafter. So while it's true to saw that chainsaws save you time in the actual chopping of wood, some of that time is, unfortunately, lost in maintenance!
Publish Date: 30-09-21
Description: No matter how big or small the space is, the top items on your bathroom supplies list should include: Mirror Wastebasket Natural Hand Soap Bath towels, hand towels, washcloths (2 each) Non-skid bath mat Toothbrush holder Over-the-door and/or wall hooks Extra toilet paper Toilet paper storage Toilet brush & container Plunger (tucked out of sight) Green cleaning supplies These are just the basic things you need in your bathroom. Depending on your budget and size of the room, there are plenty of ways to add more personality. Why not try an essential oil diffuser, softer light bulbs, or a colorful shower curtain? Bathroom Shelves Types By Material A common way to look at shelving types is by the material. When it comes to bathroom organizing and decor options, the color and material of your shelving does matter. Let’s take a look at some of the more popular shelf ideas by material. 1. Wood Bathroom Shelves Furniture made from wood is prized for its durability, easy maintenance, and versatility. A wood shelf in the bathroom quickly becomes a point of visual interest because of the grain, staining, and design. Depending on the quality of wood used for a shelf, it could end up becoming an heirloom in the future. Brown Wall Mounted Shelves By SODUKU Create a more inviting bathroom with a modern flair when you install these attractive. floating wood shelves in a dark brown finish. The wood is treated to be both dampproof and heat resistant. The metal elements on the shelves retain an architectural design, acts as a protective guard, and includes space to hang towels underneath the wood panel. 2. Teak Bathroom Shelves A sub-category of the former, teak is one of the most valuable woods for making exquisite furniture, and it is a sought-after material because it is resistant to dry rot. Due to the intense harvesting of teak wood, newer furniture is constructed using sustainable sources to create beautiful, sophisticated furniture. 3. Teak Bath Shelf By AquaTeak Go with a highly reviewed company when choosing a shelf for the bathroom. Take advantage of the corners of your bathroom with this Architectural Digest featured furniture. Comprised of teak wood, this naturally water-resistant shelf is suitable for modern, contemporary, and classic bathrooms without taking up excess space. 4.Plastic Shelving For The Bathroom Plastic furniture is valued for being inexpensive, flexible, lightweight, and resistant to breaking easily when dropped. When choosing plastic bathroom shelf for a bathroom, a plastic fixture is ideal because it is easy to clean by wiping down, but still strong enough to store towels, toiletries, and knick-knacks. White Slim Storage Cart By SPACEKEEPER If you are short on space but need extra storage in your bathroom, check out this slim design rolling cart. Since this shelving unit is on wheels, it’s easy to rearrange your bathroom and move it about as needed. The four high-quality plastic shelves provide ample space for bathroom accessories, towels, and soaps. These Are the Only Kitchen Tools You Need LIGHTS UP on an empty apartment. You (reader) are sitting on the floor in an empty kitchen, eating takeout straight from the container. Glancing around at the bare cabinets and a box of hand-me-down utensils from an unnamed parental figure, you think to yourself, somewhat discouraged: “Where do I even begin?” A booming voice breaks through off-stage, startling you. “This is Epicurious, fear not. We have put together a guide containing the essential kitchen supplies for beginners. Let us help you through this journey.” SCENE Okay, maybe you’re newly independent, a recent grad, or just settling into your first apartment. Every home cook has to start somewhere. Here’s everything you need: a comprehensive list of cookware and tools to keep you well-equipped in the kitchen as you begin your cooking journey. Nonstick 10-Inch Pan If you really are building a kitchen from scratch, the first thing you’ll need is a nonstick pan. For a rookie cook, these pans are low-maintenance to clean and very forgiving, provided you take care of them properly (no metal utensils or scrubbers!) They are also the pan to use to cook eggs, which tend to stick to stainless steel and cast iron. Stock/Soup Pot A standard soup pot can often function as the one pot in a one-pot meal. You will rely on a 6-quart pot to boil pasta, make soups and stews, or, if you are feeling bold, simmer homemade chicken stock. Okay, maybe you’re not making your own stock now, but someday you will. And when that day comes, you will say, “Oh! I’m glad I have this stock pot on hand already. Thanks, food website!” Black beauty-supply stores have long been the first stop in a multi-step haircare ritual for Black women, from wash day to crochet braids to box braids and back again. It’s here that we find aisles of products that cater to our curls and kinks; some of them are things we’ve read online rave reviews about, some we grew up with, and some we’ve never seen before. We may walk in certain about the tools we need for our next look and end up leaving with even bigger, bolder ideas often rooted in newfound appreciation for the freedom of expression our hair allows us. But while beauty-supply stores may sound like Black-girl sanctuaries, many of these shops also greet us with built-in microaggressions. For Black women, navigating beauty spaces where we are the target customer but rarely the owner is often a balancing act—a paradox of convenient, low-cost options for our specific beauty needs that exist in a physical space where we nevertheless find ourselves feeling excluded. Depending on the city you live in, it’s common to see beauty-supply stores that are tailored to the needs of Black hair owned by non-Black people, namely Korean Americans. With a stronghold on the wig market dating back to the 1950s, Korean immigrants recognized the gold mine of Black buying power early on. Simply put, selling Black beauty supplies is good business: a market full of specialized products that are, for the most part, not widely available at more generalized health and beauty retailers. According to a report from 2017, Black shoppers spend a whopping $473 million on hair care every year—nine times more than their white counterparts. Yet they own less than 1 percent of the market share. Despite their inherent reliance on Black consumers as a means of profit, the dynamics of the beauty-supply retailer are skewed on either side of the cash-out counter. Black customers have reported being followed, profiled, and even attacked by store employees; it’s not uncommon to see signage limiting how many members of a group can come into a store at a time. Black employees at non-Black–owned beauty-supply stores report being restricted in everything from hours to advancement opportunities to not being permitted to cash customers out. Despite being the demographic for these stores and knowledgeable about the products they sell, there are limits to what Black employees are able to do in these spaces, and some find themselves walking on eggshells. “You can help out as far as making suggestions for products or directing them around the store, but that is as far that went. If you helped a customer, you had to walk and hand their items over to the cashier,” reports Elysha, a former employee of a popular Toronto-based beauty-supply store. And though she’s seen a slight shift, the lack of trust still looms large: “I am noticing more Black girls behind the cash , but they still have a non-Black staff member hovering around them.” Shower Head Holder Shower head holder is amazing to hold your shower heads and make it convenient to use handheld showers. While you take a bath while playing songs on your best shower speaker or clean your foot with foot scrubber, a shower head holder can be there for you. Now, if you have a waterfall shower head or an automatic shower cleaner, you may be thinking where to keep it safe and sound where it is easily accessible and gives a neat appearance to your bathroom. Well, having the best toilet brush or rain shower head is not enough. You need to add accessories like Shower head holders that are pretty convenient. With your shower stool and shower mirror, you can also have a shower head holder. Now you must be thinking that there are so many of them available in the market, so which one to choose? Well, don’t worry because we have got you covered. We have come up with a list of 7 best shower head holders that you can put up near your shower shelves. You can adjust the shower head height of these and make the most use of them. But before checking out the daily necessities product, let’s discuss some of the benefits of a shower head holder. Advantages of the best shower head holder: 1. They give an elegant look to your bathroom 2. They are useful for kids, older people, and even adults 3. Also, they are pretty easy to install and adjust 4. They are affordable 5. They are easily accessible 6. They are highly durable 7. They can enhance the interior of your house
Publish Date: 27-09-21
Description: Stainless steel is a versatile material that is used in many different applications. The two most common types of stainless steel are austenitic which is highly corrosion resistant and ferritic which is magnetic. In this blog we are going to break down the basics of what austenitic stainless steel is, the key benefits it provides and where the uses of stainless steel fittings can be most beneficial. Stainless Steel All steels have the same basic iron and carbon composition along with nickel, but stainless steel also contains chromium - the alloy that gives stainless steel its well-known corrosion resistance. Austenitic stainless steel contains high levels of chromium and nickel and low levels of carbon providing a balance of strength, workability and corrosion resistance. The standard stainless steel alloys used in plumbing applications contains between 18-20% chromium and 8-12% nickel, as well as small amounts of carbon 0.08% and manganese 2%. Austenitic stainless steel has the highest corrosion resistance and are the most commonly used type of stainless steel around the world. Stainless steel offers a wide range of benefits to the architect and designer of plumbing systems: Material Benefits The combining of corrosion resistance with high strength allows the reduction in wall thickness and weight. Stainless steel is resistant to heat and chemical damage. It can withstand very high flow rates - in excess of 40m/s, making it capable to withstand long-term exposure to the elements in almost any environment. Environmental Benefits Stainless steel can be used in all types of water, including drinking water in public supply. It has an excellent resistance to the full range of potable waters, including various chloride levels. At the end of its useful life, stainless steel is fully recyclable and retains a higher residual scrap value than ordinary steel. Economic Benefits Stainless steel is low maintenance and requires no additional coating, in both indoor and outdoor applications. The expected lifetime of a stainless steel system is more than 50 years, reducing system down time, replacement and maintenance costs over the life of the installation. Stainless Steel Fitting Applications With all the benefits that come with stainless steel there are equally just as many applications where stainless steel fitting can be utilized. Here are some key beneficial areas: Residential & Commercial water systems that are subject to various stresses. Commercial & Industrial piping systems that are needing to perform well under the toughest and harshest conditions. Industrial Projects for sanitary or highly corrosive applications. WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF USING STAINLESS STEEL VALVES? There are many benefits of using stainless steel valve. There’s no doubt that stainless steel is a great material that is tougher than brass, copper, and cast iron when it comes to tolerating high pressures and temperature. Carbon steel is probably the only material that comes closest to stainless steel. Generally, stainless steel values have various applications due to their great performance in terms of temperature limits, corrosion resistance, and high-pressure tolerance. APPLICATIONS OF STAINLESS STEEL BALL VALVES Since stainless steel delivers phenomenally on all fronts, they are used in various industries. Here are a few applications of stainless steel ball valves. OIL REFINING Refining crude oil is a long and complicated process that is made much easier through the use of stainless steel ball valves. Crude oil may contain sulfur, carbon dioxide, and many microorganisms, which makes it an extremely corrosive substance. Over time, the constant movement of this substance can break down the metal of the valve. Therefore, you will need pipes and valves that can withstand corrosive crude oil for the longest time. Since stainless steel valves have very high corrosion resistance, they are the obvious choice of use in the oil refinery industry. MARINE PROJECTS Certain applications involving pipes and valves occur under or near seawater. Since seawater contains chloride and sodium, it is pretty corrosive to all materials, especially metals. That’s not all, marine environments naturally involve water, a substance that has a substantial impact on all metals. In such applications, many prefer to use plastic valves since they are more resistant to water and other harsh chemicals compared to most metals. However, the main concern with using plastic valves is that they can’t withstand extreme temperatures and high pressures. Stainless steel ball valves, on the other hand, have a high-temperature tolerance, are corrosion resistant, and can withstand high pressures. The only thing these valves require is proper maintenance to extend their lifespan under or around seawater. BREWERIES Stainless steel ball valves are widely used in breweries. These valves are typically situated on the kettle to help control the flow of liquid during transfers. The reason that stainless steel valves are a top choice in breweries is that during the mashing process, the valve comes into direct contact with a liquid known as wort, which is highly corrosive and can very easily wear down iron valves, and since plastic valves lack the ability to handle high temperatures, stainless steel valves are the best option. WRAPPING UP The industries mentioned above are just a few examples of the application that stainless steel valves have. These valves can be used in any process that involves the transfer of a corrosive, high temperature, or high-pressure substance such as gas or liquid. Stainless steel 304 is one of the most common metals used nowadays. Stainless steel is well known and preferred over several other metals due to its physical properties including good corrosion resistance, durability, high strength, etc. Various types of commercial, industrial, and residential products are created using Stainless Steel. Stainless Steel 304 flanges are one of the most popular meteal products created out of this metal. There is a vast variety of flanges available for purchase. This article discusses eight important types of flanges and their uses. Types of Stainless Steel Flanges The following are the top 8 stainless steel flange used in stainless steel pipes: Weld Neck Flanges: Flange is distinguished by their protruding necks. The weld neck flanges have the same angle and thickness as that of the pipe. Weld Neck Flanges are considered best for use in severe service conditions such as sub-zero or high temperatures and high pressure. Slip-On Flanges: These are the most affordable range of flanges available for purchase. The slip-on flanges as the name suggests need to be easier to slip them over the pipe and hence they have a slightly larger diameter than the pipe. These stainless steel Slip On flanges are fillet welded to a position and are ideal for low-pressure applications. Blind Flanges: The flanges are designed without a bore, and are used to seal vessel openings or piping systems. Blind Flanges are ideal for use where the piping systems or vessels require constant inspection. The blind flanges can be supplied with or without hubs. This SS 304 Blind Flanges can easily handle high stress caused due to internal pressure. Threaded Flanges: Threaded Flanges also known as screwed flanges, and have a thread inside the flange bore which fits on the pipe with matching male thread on the pipe. Threaded flanges are used for special applications and can be easily assembled without welding. Stainless steel 304 threaded flanges are compatible with pipes with external threads. Lap Joint Flanges: The lap joint flanges are the type of slip-on flanges that are used with stub end fittings. Lap Joint Flanges are ideal for piping systems that require regular inspection and maintenance such as low alloy steel pipes or carbon steel pipes. Socket Weld Flanges: The flanges are designed for use on small diameter and high-pressure piping. The socket weld flanges have internal welds which contribute to their durability as well as endurance limit. These flanges are used in the chemical processing industry. Orifice Flanges: The function of these steel flanges is to provide access to a line for metering liquids or gases. The orifice flanges are installed with orifice plates or flow nozzles. Ring–Type Joint Flanges: These flanges are used for high pressure and temperature applications. The ring-type joint flanges has a specially designed grove that can be easily compressed on blind, slip-on or weld neck flange. The flanges help in avoiding leakages in pipelines where media is transferred at high pressure and high temperature.
Publish Date: 24-09-21
Description: Nonwoven fabric is a fabric-like material made from lengthy fibers, bonded together by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent treatment. In simple terms, they are textiles made from fibers or threads joined together without weaving. Nonwoven materials classically lack strength unless densified or toughened by a backing. In recent years, nonwovens have become an alternative to polyurethane foam. Nowadays nonwoven fabrics are mostly used as home furnishing fabrics. Nonwoven fabrics are described as sheet or web structures bonded together by entangling fiber or filaments (and by perforating films) mechanically, thermally or chemically. They are flat, porous sheets that are made directly from separate fibers or from molten plastic or plastic film. They are not made by weaving or knitting and do not require converting the fibers to yarn. Typically, a certain percentage of recycled fabrics and oil-based materials are used in nonwoven fabrics. The percentage of recycled fabrics varies based upon the strength of material needed for the specific use. Conversely, some nonwoven fabrics can be recycled after use, given the proper treatment and facilities. For this reason, some consider nonwovens a more ecological fabric for certain applications, especially in fields and industries where disposable or single use products are important, such as hospitals, schools, nursing homes and luxury accommodations. Nonwoven fabrics are engineered fabrics that may be a limited life, single-use fabric or a very durable fabric. Nonwoven fabrics provide specific functions such as absorbency, liquid repellence, resilience, stretch, softness, strength, flame retardancy, washability, cushioning, filtering, use as a bacterial barrier and sterility. These properties are often combined to create fabrics suited for specific jobs, while achieving a good balance between product life and cost. They can mimic the appearance, texture and strength of a woven fabric and can be as bulky as the thickest paddings. In combination with other materials they provide a spectrum of products with diverse properties and are used alone or as components of apparel, home furnishings, health care, engineering, industrial and consumer goods. Types of nonwoven fabrics: Nonwovens, depending on the production process can be divided into: ? Materials produced by physicochemical methods; and ? Mechanically produced materials. Materials produced by physicochemical methods Most nonwoven materials, are made by binding fibers with adhesives. The most common glued materials are those based on fibrous cloth (a layer of textile fibers whose weight is 10–1000 gsm and more). The cloth is most often formed mechanically from several layers of combed fibers passing through the dotting drum of a combing machine. Fibrous cloth may be produced by the aerodynamic method in which the fibers are removed from the drum of the combing machine by a stream of air and transferred to a mesh drum (condenser) or a horizontal mesh with a maximum speed of up to 100 m/min, or by water dispersion of the fibers on the mesh of a paper machine. A fibrous cloth is usually made of cotton, a mixture of viscose and polyamide fibers or the waste products of textile manufacture, including unspun fibers. The most common method of producing bonded nonwoven materials are to impregnate the cloth with a liquid adhesive or spraying/printing the adhesive over the surface of the cloth. Gluing the fibers includes saturate bonding and spray bonding or a latex adhesive is applied to the fibers and then the fabric is dried. The impregnated material is dried and treated in chambers heated by hot air or infrared radiation. The nonwoven materials made in this fashion (at a rate of 50 m/min and more) are used as interlacing and sealing materials, as heat and sound insulation materials for upholstery, bedding and drapery liners. Melting fibers together can only be accomplished with synthetic, thermoplastic fibers or with a blend of fibers containing thermoplastic fibers or fusable powders. These methods include thermal bonding (heat applied to the web with or without pressure) a carded web, ther-mobonding a spunlaid web with a calendar, thermobonding a melt blown or flash spun web with a calender, thermal bonding a carded or air laid high loft web in an oven.In the hot-pressing process, the fibers are bonded by thermoplastics such as polyamides, polyethylene, and polyvinyl chloride at pressures of up to 2 mega newtons per sq m (MN/m2), or 20 kilograms-force per sq cm (kgf/cm2), at high temperatures, usually on special calenders. The bonding is preceded by thermal treatment of the fiber layer, which contains an adhesive that is applied to the fibrous cloth during its formation or after its formation. In the spunbonded method, synthetic fibers are formed as they leave the spinnerets of spinning machines and pass through troughs in which they are stretched in an air current; they are then placed on a conveyor belt and form a sheet. The material formed in this way is most often bonded with an adhesive; in some cases the stickiness of the fibers themselves is sufficient. SPUNBOUND/SPUNLACE Spunlace nonwoven fabric is produced by depositing extruded, spun filaments onto a collection belt in a uniform random manner followed by bonding the fibres. The fibres are separated during the web laying process by air jets or electrostatic charges. The collecting service is usually perforated to prevent the air stream from deflecting and carrying the fibres in an uncontrolled manner. Bonding imparts strength and integrity to the web by applying heated rolls or hot needles to partially melt the polymer and fuse the fibres together. Since molecular orientation increases the melting point, fibres that are not highly drawn can be used as thermal binding fibres. Polyethelene or random ethylene-propylene copolymers are used as low melting bonding sites. Spunbound products are employed in carpet backing, geotextiles, and disposable medical/hygiene products, automotive products, civil engineering and packaging products. The process of Spunbound non-woven production tends to be more economical as the fabric production is combined with the fibre production. AIRLAID The process of airlaying is a non-woven web forming process that disperses into a fast moving stream and condenses them onto a moving screen by means of pressure or vacuum. Airlaid fabrics is mainly composed of woodpulp and has a nature of absorbing well. It can be mixed with a definite proportion of SAP to improve its capabilities of absorbing wet. Airlaid non-woven is also referred to as dry paper non-woven. The nonwoven is made through the airlaying process. Transit the woodpulp into the bundle of airflow to make the fibres disperse and agglomeration on the floating web. Airlaid non-woven is reinforced of web. Airlaid non-woven products are employed in a number of different products across a wide range of industry’s including; the interlining of clothes, medical and hygiene products, embroidery material and filter material. DRYLAID Dry laid webs are mainly produced using staple fibres natural or manmade. Dry laid webs formation mainly consists of 4 steps: Staple fibre preparation –> Opening, cleaning, mixing & blending –> Carding –> Web laying. Advantages of Drylaid non-woven production include; The isotropic structure of the web, voluminous webs can be produced and a wide variety of process able fibres such as natural, synthetic, glass, steel and carbon. Drylaid non-woven products are employed by many products ranging from cosmetic wipes and baby diapers to beverage filtration products. WETLAID Wetlaid non-woven are non-wovens made by a modified papermaking process. That is, the fibres to be used are suspended in water. A major objective of wet laid nonwoven manufacturing is to produce structures with textile-fabric characteristics, primarily flexibility and strength, at speeds approaching those associate with papermaking. Specialized paper machines are used to separate the water from the fibres to form a uniform sheet of material, which is then bonded and dried. In the roll good industry 5 -10% of nonwovens are made by using the wet laid technology. Wetlaid is used for a wide ranging amount of industries and products. Some of the most common products that use wetlaying non-woven technology include; Tea bag paper, Face cloths, Shingling and Synthetic fibre paper. NON-WOVEN CHARACTERISTICS The particular set of properties that a printed nonwoven fabric may have is dependent upon the combination of factors in its production. Each different ttype of non-woven will consist of different characteristics. The range of characteristics include The appearance of non-woven fabrics may be paper like, felt like, or similar to that of woven fabrics. They may have a soft, resilient hand, or they may be hard, stiff or broadly with little pliability. They may be as thin as thin tissue paper or many times thicker. They may also be translucent or opaque. Their porosity may range from low tear and burst strength to very high tensile strength. They may be fabricated by gluing, heat bonding or sewing. The drapability of this type of fabrics varies from goof to none at all. Some fabrics have excellent launderability; others have none. Some may be dry-cleaned. Non-woven fabric is a material defined as Sheet or web structures bonded together by entangling fiber or filaments (and by perforating films) mechanically, thermally or chemically. Non-woven polypropylene fabric is, similarly, a thermoplastic polymer – like polypropylene – but made to look non-woven. One of its major applications is non-woven bags for shopping. Nevertheless, the non-woven fabrics gain more and more popularity in the fashion industry. With so many plastic bags ban policies sweeping the world in their attempt to reduce plastic pollution, non-woven bags (either for shopping or for fashion) are becoming the norm. But are non-woven bags as eco-friendly as advertised? Why Are Non-Woven Bags Environmentally Sustainable? As we all know, the true sustainability of a product or a fabric resides in its recyclability and reusability. Just like canvas shopping bags or jute bags, non-woven carriers are reusable for very long periods. Polypropylene is recyclable, and so are non-woven polypropylene tote bags for shopping or drawstring bags for sports or leisure. After years of use, you can throw away a broken, non-woven polypropylene office bag uses PP nonwoven fabric, for instance. As long it is collected and appropriately sorted, you can rest assured it will enter the recycling process and give life to a new item. Non-woven bags for shopping come with plenty of eco-friendly advantages that are not available to plastic bags or natural fibers, for instance: You can wash them and disinfect them without worrying about their resilience; as long as you wash it in cold water, your washing machine will not take its toll on it; You can spray your non-woven bags with disinfectants and anti-bacterial substances for enhanced safety, especially during these times of global health concerns; Both woven and non-woven polypropylene comes from recycled materials (plastic), so it is easy to understand why non-woven shopping bags come with high levels of sustainability. They are products of recycling and make products of recycling in their turn. Before we move on to the next reason why non-woven bags are the sustainable answer to plastic bags, we have to say that no plastic whatsoever is biodegradable or ecologically friendly.
Publish Date: 24-09-21
Description: Gas stove actually unleash indoor air pollutants like soot, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide. Beyond that, greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels like natural gas drive climate change. That’s why there’s a push now to electrify homes; electric stoves can run on clean energy. The history of how “cooking with gas” campaigns have made a source of fossil fuel combustion in our homes seem completely innocuous gets pretty ridiculous. Leber dug up a rap video from 1988 that spends an entire four minutes hyping up gas stoves in rhyme. “Gas is so hot, it’s not on when it’s off / it’s the only way to cook, that’s what I was taught,” the rap starts off. Fast forward to about two minutes into the video, however, and there’s a disclaimer in the lyrics that my colleague Sean O’Kane noticed: “Safe cooking begins with range location / avoid main traffic paths and also isolation.” Today, gas groups pay social media influencers to advertise the supposed benefits of cooking with the fossil fuel, Leber reports. A public relations representative even posed as a resident in a neighborhood to stir up backlash against building codes that would discourage natural gas hookups in new construction, she writes. You have to read the truly bizarre and alarming history of gas that Leber traces in her article. With many of us spending more time working and hanging out at home during the pandemic, it’s more important than ever to be aware of what we’re exposed to inside the place that’s supposed to be our refuge. How to Deep Clean Your Gas Stove Burners Using Natural Cleaners No library of kitchen cleaning tips would be complete without an article on deep cleaning gas and electric burners! Dirty, greasy gas burner grates and drip pans not only age the appliance, but they also can affect your cooking and present a fire hazard. Cleaning stove burners is simple when you use these tips from the pros. Read on to see how you can get your stove sparkling clean with gas stove cleaner made from natural ingredients. How Often To Clean Gas Stove Burners Tempered glass gas stove is easy to maintain. However, when the flow of gas gets blocked, the burner heads can’t burn efficiently. Check the gas burners for irregular flame patterns and yellow flames. These are the best indicators that it’s time to grab your gas stove cleaner and get to work. Other than that, cleaning your gas stove monthly should keep it working at its best. Here’s what you’ll need to get your gas burners clean: Dishwashing detergent Baking soda Non-abrasive scrub pad Cleaning cloths Old toothbrush Paper clip Cleaning Gas Stove Burners and Caps If you have a cooktop with a pilot light, you’ll need to shut off the gas valve first. Gas burners have a removable ceramic cap that diffuses the flames. Beneath the caps, the burner head sits atop the gas tube. Remove the caps and the burner heads by carefully lifting them straight up. Avoid damaging the ignition electrode if you have one. Soak the burner heads and caps in soap and warm water for 30 minutes. Scrub buildup from the burner heads and caps using a non-abrasive scrub pad and an old toothbrush. If the port openings are clogged, use a paper clip to clear them. Be careful not to damage the metal. How To Clean Electric Stove Burners Here’s what you’ll need to get your burner stand clean: Dishwashing detergent Baking soda Non-abrasive scrub pad Microfiber towel Cleaning cloths If your coils and drip pans have caked-on grime, turn the burners on for a few minutes to burn off residue. After they cool, wash the drip pans with warm soapy water and cover them completely with a mixture of 2 parts baking soda and 1 part water. Let the drip pans sit for 15 minutes. While the drip pans are soaking, wipe down the stove coils with a damp cloth to remove stains and residue. Scrub the drip pans and rinse the baking soda mixture. Use fresh soapy water to wash off the residue, then rinse and dry. Buff them to a nice shiny finish with a microfiber towel. Now, on to your stovetop. How to Clean Your Stovetop For gas stovetops, use caution and avoid getting the electric starter wet. Degrease the stovetop by wiping it down with a damp cloth to loosen up the top layer of residue. Use a sponge and soapy water to cut through the grease and wipe down your stovetop with a damp cloth to remove the cleaning solution. For tough buildup, turn to your homemade baking soda mixture. Spread your cleaning paste over the entire stovetop and let it sit for at least 15 minutes. Scrub the stovetop and wipe off the baking soda cleaner with a clean, damp cloth. If you are intimidated by cleaning your gas or electric stove, or any other place in your kitchen, don’t fret. Call The Maids for a free estimate and get that good-as-new, clean home feeling you love. Gas stove tops offer quick temperature control and are more affordable to use than electric stove tops. The best material for a gas stove is one that can conduct and distribute heat evenly, and respond quickly to temperature changes. For the best cookware for gas stoves, look for ones that are made of stainless steel with aluminum or copper layers. The average household gas stove looks like it can handle quite a bit. Its sizable build, durable fabrication, rugged cast iron grates, all signify a hard-wearing kitchen appliance. Still, as with any appliance, especially one used practically every day to prepare food, it’s important to handle gas stoves with care. This means making sure the stove is well-maintained, properly cleaned, and used with the right cookware. While technically any pot or pan can be used on a gas stove, there are certain materials that are better suited for its open-flame style of cooking. We recommend our own stainless steel cookware for gas stoves. In this article, we’ll share what those materials are, explain why they work so well, and round up some of the best cookware for gas stoves available today. The Features of a Gas Stove Iron gas stove may be older than electric stoves, but they’re still the preferred option for a number of reasons. First and most important is how easy it is to adjust the heat of a gas stove. A burner can be turned on and off in an instant. And every twist of the control knob creates an immediate corresponding change in the burner’s flame level — a lightning quick heat response that’s crucial in cooking. Many cooks also like how the flames provide a convenient visual cue about the stove’s current heat setting. This can be a bit trickier to gauge with the dark glass tops of electric or induction cooktops. An added bonus of the open flame is that it lends itself well to quickly roasting a few small items, like corn tortillas, bell peppers, or marshmallows. Cooking with gas is also comparatively cheaper than cooking with electricity. Gas stoves generally run on propane, butane, petroleum, or natural gas, all of which are quite affordable. This gives gas stoves an advantage, not only for the cost-conscious home cook, but for anyone who finds themselves in the middle of a power outage. As for cookware, gas stovetops easily accommodate a wide range. They can be used with just about any type of cookware material and shape — from small skillets to tall stockpots. Woks in particular were designed to be used over an open flame. Flames, however, don't naturally distribute heat in a uniform manner. Some parts of a pan will have more contact with stronger flames than other parts, and the heat can be very concentrated, especially on a low setting. Add this to a gas stove’s ability to change temperatures in an instant, and it's easy to see why it's so important to use cookware that can ably withstand these variations. Choosing the Best Portable Gas Stove Portable gas stoves are crucial gear for the gourmet on the go. These stoves usually come with a burner and a cooking surface, and they let you boil, simmer, sauté, and fry. If you can do it on a stovetop at home, you can do it on a portable stove. Folding gas stove is different than a portable gas grills. Portable grills are similar to the grills you use at home. If you want to grill up hot dogs, chicken, or vegetables, you’re good to go with a portable grill. But sometimes you want more than your standard backyard barbecue menu, and that’s where a portable gas stove comes in. These have burners more like a traditional stove. They often come with containers to cook in, but many can also be used with other types of pots, pans, and skillets like a regular stovetop. What Kind of Portable Gas Stove Do You Need? The adventures you have on the trail aren’t like anyone else’s. Your needs and your priorities are unique. That’s why there are stoves for every type of outdoor explorer, from long-distance backpackers to car campers. As you think about your needs, there are some specific features you may want to think about: Size – If you’re hiking, you’ll want to save as much space and weight in your pack as possible. If you’re getting to base camp and setting up quickly, you might be more willing to haul a little more gear in the name of having the perfect home away from home. Fuel type – There are three main liquid fuels. Each have their own considerations and limitations. Then there’s our Jetpower fuel, which combines the benefits of both. Propane is the most common camp stove fuel. It’s high-performance, and you can find it just about everywhere. Propane is what powers the Genesis base camp system, and Jetlink technology lets you build a high-efficiency network of burners from one propane tank. Isobutane has a lower boiling point, and it’s lighter. That means it’s easier to carry, and it’s more efficient in colder environments. However, it’s also more expensive. Butane is the cheapest fuel for a portable gas stove, but it’s also the least efficient and reliable. It has the highest boiling point and the lowest vapor pressure of the three gases. Jetpower is Jetboil’s engineered blend of propane and isobutane. It’s a unique mix that combines the best aspects of both, and it’s what we trust to power most of our stoves. Jetpower delivers high vapor pressure in all four seasons. Cost – Cost is certainly a factor in choosing a portable gas stove, and there are options at every price point. However, it’s worth noting that sometimes paying more up front can save money in the long run. A high-efficiency stove means you’ll spend less on fuel over time, and durable equipment means you won’t have to buy a replacement for a long time. Durability – Most people want a stove that holds up outdoors as well as they do. Knowing that you’ve got a well-engineered stove means knowing you’ve got a reliable one. Number of burners – How big is the group that you’re feeding? If you’re solo, or just out with a partner, you can probably get away with one. But if you’re feeding a group, you may want a setup like the Genesis, which starts with two burners and can expand as your group dose. Utility – What are you cooking? Are you boiling soup? Are you making a three-course meal? The meals you plan to cook may be the biggest factor of all in choosing the stove that suits your needs.
Publish Date: 24-09-21
Description: When the summer months are upon us, one of the most popular items in many wardrobes is the tank top. It can be dressed up with a jacket and smart jeans, or dressed down with pajamas and worn to bed. Tank tops keep your arms and neck cool while covering the rest of your upper body. When the temperature is warm, they provide just the right amount of coverage. When did tank tops make their way into modern society? Before the 1920’s, men and women were not seen showing their arms off in public. However, the Roaring Twenties brought about a revolution in the world of fashion and clothing. Women were cutting their hair shorter, wearing dresses which were more revealing than the previous trends, and enjoying human contact (such as rebellious hand-holding!) with their male partners while they danced or walked down the street. Tank Tops in the Olympic Games The introduction of women’s swimming into the Olympic Games came along in 1912, held in Stockholm, Sweden. A total of 27 women competed in the swimming events at these particular games, and their swimwear was deemed “immodest” by many news outlets and spectators. The costumes they wore were very similar to modern-day tank tops, but with an added piece which resembled shorts to cover the top half of the thighs. While we might call it a “swimming pool” these days, back in the 1920’s, it was known as a swimming “tank.” Thus, the items worn by female swimmers were referred to as “tank suits,” in other words, a suit which was worn in the tank! Tank suits were made from a variety of materials including silk, which was considered very immodest since it was often see-through after going in the water. Cotton was also used, and heavy woolen materials were considered the most modest since they were so thick and concealing. The top of a tank suit had straps which were almost identical to the straps we see on tank tops today. The straps would keep the suit up, but the lack of sleeves gave female swimmers the freedom of movement and flexibility that they needed in order to perform to their full potential in the pool. Definition A waist trimmer is a shaping garment similar to a girdle. The waist trainer pulls a person’s midsection in as tight as possible. The idea behind a waist trainer is that the pulling action gives the person a sleeker, smaller waist. Waist trainers usually consist of a combination of tough fabric and hard fibers. Hooks, Velcro, lacing, or other strong fasteners hold the trainer tightly in place. Advocates believe that it is possible to “train” the waist to retain a slimmer shape after frequent wearing of the garment over an extended period. Some people suggest that wearing a waist trainer while working out can aid weight loss. Do they work? Waist trimmer of sweat work in a similar way to corsets, which fell out of fashion due to discomfort and health concerns. A waist trainer can produce a temporary reduction in waist size or circumference, and a person will typically see immediate results. However, as soon as they take off the waist trainer, their waist will no longer look smaller. Also, waist trainers do not reduce a person’s body fat. People looking to lose body fat around their midsection or lose substantial weight overall should not rely on wearing a waist trainer to do this. However, a person may feel a loss of appetite while wearing a waist trainer. The garment puts pressure on the stomach, which can create an artificial feeling of fullness. Short sleeve button up shirts and polos… they get a bad rap, man. I think that’s mostly because the nerds and dorks who wear them in TV shows and movies wear them all wrong. The fit is off, the color is off, the length is off… everything is wrong. But in warm weather, short sleeve shirts are a life-saver! Especially if you run hot, like myself. In this article, we’re gonna cover every detail about how a short sleeve button up shirt and polo shirt should fit. Let’s get into it! By the way, click on any of the fit images below to enlarge in a new tab (for a more detailed view!) HOW SHOULD A SHORT SLEEVE SHIRT FIT OVERALL? Overall, your short sleeve button-up shirt should fit slim, but not too tight. Try the sit down test. When trying on a new shirt , button it up like you normally would, and then sit down in a chair. It should feel as comfortable (and have enough give) sitting down as it is while standing. The buttons shouldn’t be pulling apart; the shirt shouldn’t be stretching like spandex on your torso. By the way, the short sleeve shirts you see in these photos are from Peter Manning. PMNYC is a long-time partner of EG and I’m psyched to have their short sleevers as the perfect example of a well-fitting short sleeve shirt in this article. If you haven’t come across PMNYC yet and you’re a shorter / smaller guy, you’ve probably run into the issue of clothing proportions being off somehow… Whether it’s: the shirt being too long the sleeves being too long & wide or the pockets being too big and low on your shirts and pants Peter Manning’s taken care of all that with their clothing. They’re designed specifically for the guy of smaller stature (5’8″ and under), meaning everything—length, width, proportion, even pocket sizes!—are designed with the smaller man in mind. 16 Different Types of Sleeves There are many different sleeve styles that can be loose and flowy, structured or puffy, long or short, and can be made from any kind of fabric. Set-in sleeve. A set-in sleeve is a sleeve that is attached to the garment’s armhole and sewn all the way around. Most sleeves, if they are not continuous with the bodice’s fabric are set-in sleeves. Bell sleeves. Also called peasant sleeves, this long sleeve is fitted around the shoulder and upper arm and flares out to the wrist, like a bell. Cap sleeves. A cap sleeve is an extremely short sleeve that doesn’t extend very far from the shoulder and doesn’t go below the armpit. It can have a gathered, elastic seam or a loose seam. Kimono sleeves. A kimono sleeve is a sleeve that is in one piece with the garment’s bodice and is not sewn on separately. The sleeve is generally wide with a uniform circumference throughout. These are generally used for Chinese-style robes, not Japanese kimonos, despite their name. For a Japanese kimono, the sleeves are usually sewn separately. Raglan sleeves. A raglan sleeve extends from a garment's neckline, rather than from the shoulder, and this allows better movement. This type of sleeve is used for baseball t-shirts. Bishop sleeves. A bishop sleeve flares out from the shoulder, giving volume to the sleeve all the way to the cuff, where the fabric is tightly gathered. Butterfly sleeves. Like a bell sleeve, a butterfly sleeve flares out from the shoulder, but it usually does not fully cover the arm. Flutter sleeves. A flutter sleeve is very similar to a butterfly sleeve except it is generally a little shorter and wider, falling loosely Dolman sleeves. This is a type of sleeve that has a very deep armhole, and the sleeve gets progressively narrower to the wrist. This type of sleeve is also called a batwing sleeve, due to its likeness to wings. Puffed sleeves. A puffed sleeve is gathered at the shoulder and at the seam but is full and “puffy” in the middle. Cape sleeves. Cape sleeves are full and flowing sleeves that look like capes. The fabric is gathered at the shoulder and flares out like a cape from there. Lantern sleeves. A lantern sleeve is a long sleeve that balloons out between the wrist and the elbow and then gathers again around the wrist. Balloon sleeves. Balloon sleeves are long, puffed sleeves that are gathered at the shoulder and then puffed out and gather back at the wrist. Sometimes, the sleeve puffs out lower than the shoulder, but it is still a full puff rather than a tapered flare. Slit sleeves. A slit sleeve is a sleeve that has a slit down the center usually exposing part of the arm. This sleeve can also be called a cold shoulder sleeve. Leg-of-mutton sleeves. This sleeve is gathered and puffed by the shoulder and upper arm and then fitted on the forearm. This style of sleeve somewhat resembles a sheep’s leg, hence the name. T-shirt sleeve. A t-shirt sleeve is a short, set-in sleeve that starts at the shoulder and ends at the middle of the upper arm.
Publish Date: 24-09-21
Description: WHO and its partners recommend the use of auto-disable syringes, "bundled" with the supply of vaccines when donor dollars are used, in all mass immunization campaigns, and also strongly advocate their use in routine immunization programmes. Because of the relatively high price of auto-disable syringes, WHO's Technical Network for Logistics in Health recommends that activities be initiated to encourage the transfer of production technology for these syringes as a means of promoting their use and enhancing access to the technology. The present article examines factors influencing technology transfer, including feasibility, corporate interest, cost, quality assurance, intellectual property considerations, and probable time frames for implementation. Technology transfer activities are likely to be complex and difficult, and may not result in lower prices for syringes. Guidelines are offered on technology transfer initiatives for auto-disable syringes to ensure the quality of the product, the reliability of the supply, and the feasibility of the technology transfer activity itself. UNICEF is working to buy 1 billion syringes by the end of 2021 for COVID-19 vaccination efforts in countries participating in the COVAX Facility. Although the vaccines secured by the Facility may vary in their formulation and storage requirements, the syringes will all be of the auto-disable (AD) type, approved by the World Health Organization. AD syringes are recommended for immunization programmes because they are designed to prevent re-use by locking automatically after a single use. They are the best way of ensuring that people receive their shots safely, without a risk of contracting an infection due to contaminated needles. The AD syringes bought for this immense operation are similar to those routinely procured and delivered by UNICEF for the vaccination of children worldwide. Joint efforts for safe injection Until a few decades ago, children were vaccinated using safety syringe, which exposed them to the risk of transmission of bloodborne diseases like Hepatitis B and HIV. “Sometimes, these used syringes were resold and reused, and we have encountered instances of children using them as toys”, tells Robin Nandy, UNICEF Chief of Immunization. According to a study sponsored by WHO in 2014, up to 1.7 million people contracted hepatitis B, up to 315 000 with hepatitis C, and 33,800 with HIV through unsafe injections. The situation started to improve in 1999, when UNICEF, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) jointly called for the improvement in injection safety standards. In a statement, the organizations noted that AD syringes were already available and affordable and declared that they should be the device of choice for administering vaccines in both routine services and during mass campaigns. Since then, several initiatives have driven progress in injection safety for immunization. An example of collective advocacy was taken by the Measles and Rubella Initiative (M&RI), launched in 2001 and led by the American Red Cross, the United Nations Foundation, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, UNICEF and the World Health Organization. The partnership required that safe injection equipment, including AD syringes, were used as part of the support they provided countries to carry out vaccination campaigns. With the support of major donors, UNICEF has been playing a key role in the global effort for safe injection. The number of auto disable syringe UNICEF procured grew from 11 million in 1997 to around 600-800 million per year. UNICEF is also the world’s largest buyer of AD syringes, procuring 40% of the global market. This growth has been accompanied by a significant price drop. Three decades ago, UNICEF paid US$ 0.12 per unit of an AD syringe. The price has since fallen to US$ 0.03 per unit. “All these developments have been the result of a global programmatic decision to use AD syringes for immunization supported by a variety of stakeholders”, says Robert Matthews, head of the Medical Devices Unit in UNICEF Supply Division. He explains that a number of elements, including funding from donors like Gavi and M&RI, have helped influence and shift the market away from traditional disposable reusable syringes towards the use of AD syringes for immunization. Through COVAX, UNICEF is keeping its commitment to safe injection by exclusively buying AD syringes for the COVID-19 vaccination. “With safe injection equipment we strive to guarantee that the good intention embodied in the vaccine does not do harm”, says Robert. As you may have seen in the media recently, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has launched new guidelines on medical injections and a global campaign to switch all medical and vaccination injections to syringes that cannot be used more than once. These "safety-engineered syringes" may, for example, include a weak spot in the plunger that causes it to break if the user attempts to pull back on the plunger after the injection. Others have a metal clip that blocks the plunger so it cannot be moved back, while in others the needle retracts into the luer slip type syringe barrel at the end of the injection. Using these syringes in medical settings will, according to WHO, protect millions of people from becoming infected with HIV, hepatitis and other diseases through the re-use of unsterile equipment by doctors and medical staff, especially in the poorest health systems in the world. Their ambitious aim is that every country should have transitioned to these new syringes by 2020. However, these recommendations and this campaign explicitly do not apply to needle and syringe programmes for people who inject drugs (the population most impacted by HIV, hepatitis and other diseases transmitted through contaminated injecting equipment). It has been demonstrated and proven on many occasions that these auto-disable syringes are unsuitable, ineffective and undesirable in these programmes – clients simply do not like them, they are often harder to use, and they cost more. For example, drug preparation and injection amongst people who inject drugs routinely involves more than one retraction or depression of the syringe plunger, making auto-disable syringes inappropriate. Several peer-reviewed studies have also documented the inadequacy of auto-disable syringes for people who inject drugs – see this informative briefing from the USA's Harm Reduction Coalition for more information. As a result, and after intensive lobbying by the NNEF and other civil society partners around the world, the WHO guidelines (available here) include the clear exemption that health systems must set "policies and standards for procurement, use and safe disposal of disposable syringes in situations where they remain necessary as described above, including in syringe programmes for people who inject drugs". Similar disclaimers appear in the accompanying leaflet and press release – but this has not been picked up in the media reporting, such as the recent BBC article. So in short, auto-disable or auto-retract syringes remain unsuitable for needle and syringe programmes. Of course, the message must continue to be that every syringe is intended to be single use, and programmes should continue to use low dead space syringes as before. But these new guidelines from WHO should not change the way that we work. Injection is one of the important health care procedures used globally to administer drugs. Its unsafe use can transmit various blood borne pathogens. This article aims to review the history and status of injection practices, its importance, interventions and the challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries. The history of injections started with the discovery of syringe in the early nineteenth century. Safe injection practice in developed countries was initiated in the early twentieth century but has not received adequate attention in developing countries. The establishment of “Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN)” was an milestone towards safe injection practice globally. In developing countries, people perceive injection as a powerful healing tool and do not hesitate to pay more for injections. Unsafe disposal and reuse of contaminated luer lock type syringe is common. Ensuring safe injection practice is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare system in developing countries. To address the problem, interventions with active involvement of a number of stakeholders is essential. A combination of educational, managerial and regulatory strategies is found to be effective and economically viable. Rational and safe use of injections can save many lives but unsafe practice threatens life. Safe injection practice is crucial in developing countries. Evidence based interventions, with honest commitment and participation from the service provider, recipient and community with aid of policy makers are required to ensure safe injection practice. Auto-disable syringe has a mechanism to immobilize the plunger or block the needle or cause the syringe to leak when a second injection is attempted hence it cannot be reused. The needle is also fixed permanently in the syringe to prevent the reuse of the needle as well. Mandatory use of auto-disable syringes for vaccination is a good step for ensuring injection safety. But associated cost and safe disposal is a serious limitation for developing countries. Although auto-disable syringe cannot be reused, the exposed needle can be risky. Moreover disposal of auto-disable syringe is also a challenge in developing countries where the infrastructure for disposal is lacking. Despite the growing awareness about the need of safe health care waste management (including disposal of injectable), compliance is lacking. So, pros and cons of each intervention, in context to the implementation region and resources should be analysed before implementation. The healthcare workers (front line workers) should be actively involved in the planning, implementation and evaluation of new technologies and other changes in the practice, for the practical and successful implementation. Injections have saved many lives but at the same time carry the risk of infections. So the current concern is how to make this practice more safe and beneficial in developing nations? Various strategies such as educational, managerial and regulatory have been discussed but challenges have to be overcome for their successful implementation. Rational use of injections, proper management and disposal of injectable products can lead to safe injection practice and for this honest commitment and participation is required from service provider, recipient and community with support from policy makers. More research to understand the problem in individual countries and regions is required to develop evidence based interventions.
Publish Date: 15-09-21