- Created: 08-09-21
Description: Wound Dressings Wound, whether it is a minor cut or a major incision, it is important to care for it properly, part of this process includes wound dressing. Dressing is designed to be in contact with the wound, which is different from a bandage that holds the dressing in place. Historically, wet-to-dry dressings have been used extensively for wounds requiring debridement. In 1600 BC, Linen strips soaked in oil or grease covered with plasters was used to occlude wounds. Clay tablets were used for the treatment of wounds by Mesopotamian origin from about 2500 BCE. They cleaned wounds with water or milk prior to dressing with honey or resin. Wine or vinegar usage for cleaning the wounds with honey, oil and wine as further treatment was followed by Hippocrates of ancient Greece in 460- 370 BCE. They used wool boiled in water or wine as a bandage. There was a major breakthrough in the antiseptic technique during the 19th century, antibiotics were introduced to control infections and decrease mortality. Modern wound dressing arrival was in 20th century. When the wound is closed with dressing, such as transparent film dressing, they are continuously exposed to proteinases, chemotactic, complement & growth factors, which is lost in the wound exposed. So during late 20th century, production of occlusive dressing began to protect and provide moist environment to wound. These dressings helps in faster re-epithelialization, collagen synthesis, promotes angiogenesis by creating hypoxia to the wound bed and decreases wound bed pH which leads to decrease in the wound infection. Woven absorbent cotton gauze was used in 1891. Until the mid 1900’s, it was firmly believed that wounds healed more quickly if kept dry and uncovered whereas ‘closed wounds heal more quickly than open wound’ written in an Egyptian medical text -Edwin smith surgical papyrus in 1615 BC. Oscar Gilje in 1948 describes moist chamber effect for healing ulcers. In the mid 1980’s, the first modern wound dressing were introduced which delivered important characteristics providing moisture and absorbing fluids (e.g. polyurethane foams, hydrocolloids, iodine-containing gels). During the mid 1990’s, synthetic wound dressings expanded into various group of products which includes hydrogels, hydrocolloids, alginates, synthetic foam dressing, silicone meshes, tissue adhesives, vapor-permeable adhesive films and silver/collagen containing dressing. Traditional wound dressing Traditional wound dressing products including gauze, lint, plasters, bandages (natural or synthetic) and cotton wool are dry and used as primary or secondary dressings for protecting the wound from contaminations. Gauze dressings made out of woven and non woven fibres of cotton, rayon, polyesters afford some sort of protection against bacterial infection. Some sterile gauze pads are used for absorbing exudates and fluid in an open wound with the help of fibres in these dressings. These dressings require frequent changing to protect from maceration of healthy tissues. Gauze dressings are less cost effective. Due to excessive wound drainage, dressings, including foam dressing, become moistened and tend to become adherent to the wound making it painful when removing. Bandages made out of natural cotton wool and cellulose or synthetic bandages made out of polyamide materials perform different functions. For instance, cotton bandages are used for retention of light dressings with non woven dressing, high compression bandages and short stretch compression bandages provide sustained compression in case of venous ulcers. Xeroform? (non-occlusive dressing) is petrolatum gauze with 3% of Bismuth tribromophenate used for non-exudating to slight exudating wounds. Tulle dressings such as Bactigras, Jelonet, Paratulle are some examples of tulle dressings commercially available as impregnated dressings with paraffin and suitable for superficial clean wound. Generally traditional dressings are indicated for the clean and dry wounds with mild exudate levels or used as secondary dressings. Since traditional dressings fail to provide moist environment to the wound they have been replaced by modern dressings with more advanced formulations. Modern and advanced wound dressing Modern wound dressing have been developed to facilitate the function of the wound rather than just to cover it. These dressings are focused to keep the wound from dehydration and promote healing. Based on the cause and type of wound, numerous products are available in the market, making the selection a very difficult task. Modern wound dressings, transparent dressing with absorbent pad, are usually based on synthetic polymers and are classified as passive, interactive and bioactive products. Passive products are non-occlusive, such as gauze and tulle dressings, used to cover the wound to restore its function underneath. Interactive dressings are semi-occlusive or occlusive, available in the forms of films, foam, hydrogel and hydrocolloids. These dressings act as a barrier against penetration of bacteria to the wound environment. What uses does rubbing alcohol have? Rubbing alcohol is a common household chemical. It has several potential uses in personal care, as well as in general household cleaning. However, the incorrect use of rubbing alcohol can cause serious side effects, including skin irritation and poisoning. In this article, we list some common uses for rubbing alcohol. We also outline some situations in which a person should avoid using this chemical. Common uses for rubbing alcohol, or alcohol pad, include: 1. Disinfecting tick bites People can use tweezers to remove a tick carefully from the skin. Following its removal, they can use rubbing alcohol to disinfect the bite. They should apply rubbing alcohol to a cotton swab and dab it onto the area where the tick had attached itself. 2. Caring for pierced ears According to the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD), people can use rubbing alcohol to help clean the skin around new ear piercings. To do this, a person should dip a cotton ball or pad into the rubbing alcohol. They should then gently wipe it around the piercing on the front and back of the ear. People should clean the piercing twice a day to help prevent bacterial infections and scabbing. It is important to note that some experts disagree with this advice, recommending that people avoid using rubbing alcohol because it might slow the healing process. 3. Reducing body odor Rubbing alcohol can help kill odor-causing bacteria, and it can be used in woundcare dressing, or hydrocolloid dressing. A person can apply rubbing alcohol under the armpits to help eliminate body odors. However, they should avoid applying rubbing alcohol soon after shaving, as this will cause stinging. 4. Deodorizing shoes Shoes can develop a strong odor, particularly if a person wears them while exercising or doing other physical activity. Spraying the insoles of the shoes with rubbing alcohol can help eliminate odor-causing bacteria. A person should fill a spray bottle with rubbing alcohol and use this to spray the insides of the shoes. Leaving the shoes in the sun will help dry them out. 5. Creating homemade room deodorizer It is possible to make a room deodorizer by pouring rubbing alcohol into a spray bottle and adding a few drops of an essential oil. A person can then spray the mixture around the room to help mask unpleasant odors. 6. Creating homemade ice packs By mixing water and rubbing alcohol, a person can create a reusable and malleable homemade ice pack. They can follow these steps: Fill a sealable freezer bag with 2 cups of water and 1 cup of 70% rubbing alcohol. Push as much air out as possible, and seal the bag. Place the filled bag inside another freezer bag, pushing out as much air as possible before sealing it. Freeze for several hours. Once the ice pack is ready, people can apply it to sore muscles or joints to relieve pain and inflammation. 7. Cleaning and disinfecting hard surfaces Rubbing alcohol can help clean and disinfect hard surfaces. It is effective against most, but not all, pathogens. The main ingredient in rubbing alcohol is isopropyl alcohol (IA). Most rubbing alcohols contain about 70% IA, but the amount can range from 60% to 99%, depending on the product. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source, alcohol solutions are most effective at concentrations of 60–90%. People should avoid using diluted solutions that have a concentration of 50% or below, as these will be less effective in killing pathogens. 8. Disinfecting sponges and cloths Rubbing alcohol can also help disinfect household items, such as bathroom or kitchen sponges or cleaning cloths. A person should pour some rubbing alcohol onto the sponge or cloth and let it soak for several minutes or hours inside a sealable container. 9. Cleaning and sanitizing electronic devices Alcohol evaporates quickly and can kill pathogens on phones, laptops, tablets, and other devices. It is best to use a rubbing alcohol with 99% IA for electronics. A person should apply a small amount of the rubbing alcohol to a paper towel or cloth and gently wipe it across the electronic device. This chemical can also help remove water from an electronic device if a person accidentally drops it into water or spills some water on it. If the device was switched off at the time, removing water with the rubbing alcohol should recover it.
Publish Date: 08-09-21